Sustainable Rural Development
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- ItemAgri-Food Supply Chain Management Analysis in Palestine (Jenin & Tubas Governorates)(Al-Quds University, 2019-05-19) Mohammad Taysir Mohammad Qabha; محمد تيسير محمد قبهاThe agricultural sector is one of the sectors on which the local economy is based and constitutes a main source of support. The agricultural sector is characterized by the large number of operations accompanying the production process and the large number of parties involved in this process. With the importance of this sector in providing the source of food for humans, but also characterized by instability and uncertainty. Agricultural activity in Palestine is more than a practice for what the land means for the Palestinian citizen. However, with many of the problems facing agriculture in Palestine, the scarcity of resources, the difficulty of access to it, the harassment of the Israeli occupation and the weakness of government capabilities including financial and legal sides. The decline in the productivity and efficiency of the agricultural sector and the emergence of problems such as inadequate local products and fluctuations in product prices appeared to be apparent. This study is intended to investigate the causes of rising production costs through the so-called agricultural supply chain. The aim of the study is to analysis the current agricultural supply chain in the study area and to identify the reasons for the high production costs, in addition to the importance of applying information technology in raising the efficiency of the agricultural sector and clarifying the responsibilities required by the regulators of agricultural work. The agricultural sector in Palestine is characterized by its overlapping with the Israeli agricultural sector. This overlap has a great impact on the Agri-food Supply Chain Management in Palestine, in addition the agriculture sector suffer from other other problems including water scarcity, Israeli control of the agriculture land in area ‗c‘ and weak supervision by those responsible for the agricultural sector due to lack of resources iv and lack of attention to the use of information technology (IT) in dissemination of the desired data and information needed to improve the efficiency of agri-food supply chain management. The rising of production cost as a result of these problems facing the agriculture sector has been disturbing the Palestinian farmers and is a burden on consumers at the same time, and therefore emerged interest in the implementation of the Agri-food supply chain to regulate intra-processes within the supply chain and find effective solutions to high production costs. The study was conducted to analyze the reality of the Agri-food supply chain management and its components in the study areas. The study focused on Jenin and Tubas areas for the, which are considered the basket of the West Bank for the most agricultural crops. The study adopted analytical and exploratory descriptive methods to understand the status of the agri-food supply chain management and the nature of the relationship between the components ( suppliers, farmers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers) of the chain. The method of interviewing was adopted as a research tool in addition to the observation method. The search tool is designed to show the relationship between the components of the supply chain horizontally and between the components of the chain and the elements of the chain vertically, noting that the elements of the supply chain are production, inventory, transportation, location and information. Through the discussion of the responses of the interviewees and their analysis, the results of the study were obtained through the adoption of the previous studies and their results as a reference. v The study reached the following; there is an agri-food supply chain management in the study areas but it is weak and fragile. And their adoption of traditional administrative methods that do not upgrade to the modern methods used in previous studies, weak confidence and data transfer between components of the supply chain, weak scientific research in the field of agriculture, whether scientific or administrative skills acquired by the components of the chain, Lack of prior vision or planning of the agricultural process by farmers, which leads to the emergence of variation in production processes, both in quantities or crops produced. The study confirmed in its recommendations on the following; build national team comprising both the Ministry of Agriculture, academics and representatives of farmers, explain the concept and importance of applying the agri-food supply chain management, build-up a database that includes all parties to the agricultural process and adoption of information technology as a tool for disseminating data among all parties, the most important step is the enactment of laws and legislation to ensure implementation of agri-food supply chain management.
- ItemBioactivity against plant fungal pathogens and germination studies of Salvia fruticusa Mill and Organium syriacum(Al-Quds University, 2020-06-03) Fatima Al.Zahra’ Hussamaldein Manasra; فاطمة الزهراء حسام الدين فرح مناصرةBotrytis cinerea is the most common causative agent of a disease of gray molds which is one of the most destructive diseases infecting over 230 different plants worldwide such as tomatoes, grapes, and strawberries causes many economic losses. Also, F. oxysporum a soil-borne facultative pathogen with a global distribution, causes perennial wilt and foot-, root- and bulb disease in a wide range of economically important crops such as tomatoes sweet potatoes, legumes, cucurbits and bananas, both fungi can be controlled by several ways, such as cultural and chemical controls. Unfortunately, they develop high resistance to several chemical fungicides which have a negative environmental, plant, animal and human impacts. So several alternatives were suggested including biological control and plant extracts to reduce them. In recent decades medicinal plant including S.fruticosa and O. syriacum are being used as a potential source of significant compounds in medicines, cosmetics, and food industry. Because of the safety concerns it contains, and their bioactive essential oils which proved by several studies that have antifungal and antioxidant effects. Thus the objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal properties of Thyme and Sage natural products against B. cinerea and F. oxysporum. Sage and Thyme leaves were collected in 2019 from different locations in Bani Na'im. Then leaves extracted by using 99.0% ethanol, and essential oils were isolated by steam distillation. Through this process hydrosol obtained, the effect of each natural product against B. cinerea and F. oxysporum tested by using Mycelium growth rate assay . The media used for fungal is Potatoes Dextrose Agar (PDA). The results showed that both plants leaves extracts , Essential Oils and hydrosol had an antifungal effect on mycelium growth against both pathogenic fungi compared to the control sample (without adding any natural products) . The results showed that S.fruticosa leafs extracts , EOs and hydrosol had an antifungal effect on mycelia growth of B. cinerea and F. oxysporum pathogens. Statistical analyses showed that there is significant differences in the rate of reduction (R) as the concentration of leaves extract or EOs increases until they totally inhibited (100% ) both fungi growth . On the other hand, statistical analyses showed that there are no significant differences in the rate of reduction from hydrosol at the used concentrations. In addition to that O. syriacum results showed high antifungal activity of its leaves extract and essential oil that inhibit the mycelium growth rate (R) reached up to 100% against both pathogenic fungi and the minimum inhibition concentration of their leave extracts and EOs were (0.01%) . However, O. syriacum hydrosol wasn't significant in the the rate of reduction (R) of B. cinerea and F. oxysporum at the used concentrations . The results of S.fruticosa and O. syriacum leaves extract , essential oils and hydrosol antifungal activity and their antifungal agents are of particular importance for managing pathogenic fungi ,so it’s very important to increase .The cultivated areas of sage and thyme ,in order to efficiently use them to produce bio- pesticides. In order to improve Sage and Thyme germination , many different treatments were done through this experiment, in order to study their effect on seed germination , for achieving rapid, uniform and higher germination which will lead to higher plant stand establishment. In order to increase seed germination due to their economic value . six treatments and control which were subjected to sand paper scarification , chilling, growth regulator treatment using Gibberellins and kinetin in 500 ppm for 24hours and 48 hours were done . After each treatment, the seeds were cultivated within the planting bed and placed on filter paper. Germination counting was started after 3days. Results showed the effect of different treatment on sage seed germination rate . Kinetin growth regulator treatment for 24 hours showed the highest germination percentage (80.7%) compared to the control one. However chilling showed the lowest germination percentage( 22.5%) among all treatments. On the other hand, result of the treatment on thyme showed that, the highest germination percentage with a numeric value of 91.4% was observed in the kinetin growth regulator for 24 hours , which compared to the control treatment was increased by 45.8%. Next higher percentages of germination were obtained for sand paper scarification with a numerical value of 74.7% and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours treatment with the value of 55.7% and the lowest was growth regulator kinetin treatment for 48 hours with percentage of germination was (17%) .From all results of this study, S.fruticosa and O. syriacum leaves extracts , essential oils and hydrosol antifungal activity against B. cinerea and F. oxysporum , can be used as a fungicide to reduce disease caused by fungi, and recommended to formulate fungicide with adding S.fruticosa and O. syriacum natural products .
- ItemThe Consequences of the Hebron Protocol on Businesses The case of the old city of Hebron (H2 area)(Al-Quds University, 2020-06-07) Munther Yahya Hamed Adhami; منذر يحيى حامد ادهميThe importance of Hebron’s old city stims from its religious, cultural, and economic significance. Since the Israeli occupation, Hebron has been a contested place between the Palestinians and the Israelis. Palestinians of the old city have always suffered the consequences of the occupation and the presence of Israeli settlements within Palestinian neighbourhoods. In the aftermath of Oslo Accord (in 1993), a special agreement was developed for Hebron, the Hebron Protocol at a later stage (in 1997). The agreement resulted in dividing the city into two parts, with main religious, historical, and commercial venues kept under Israeli security control. The direct consequence of the protocol is segregation between H-1 and H-2, and fragmentation of the Israeli-controlled area (H-2). The agreement has granted the Israelis extra power that enabled them to isolate the old city through the imposition of harsh security measures, which severely isolated of the old city; therefore contributed significantly to cease of businesses and abandonment of many residences, and resulting restrictions on access to services and hindrance of natural growth. The main goal of the study is to diagnose main factors that contributed to the decline of businesses and investment concerning the terms of the Hebron Protocol. To achieve this, the study staged interviews and focus groups, in addition to a questionnaire distributed to the study sample, to explicitly illustrate the negative impact of the protocol on businesses from all of its dimensions. The main motivators for doing this thesis are: To demonstrate the weak terms of the agreement and highlight Israelis’ breach of the agreement terms and therefore demonstrate the consequences on businesses and investment in the old city. The study results concluded that the Protocol contributed to the isolation and segregation of the old city, decline in security and services, and therefore decline in businesses and investment, with severe economic losses for all economic sectors. Despite what the study showed about the existence of a relationship between the protocol and businesses, and lack of commitment of the Israelis to the terms of the Protocol resulted in security, economic, and social consequences, altogether pushed businesses and investment to abandon the area, it appears that this protocol gives way to the Israeli occupation to further control civic space in favour of Israeli settlements’ expansions, and hence impose their sovereignty over the old city. Such circumstances created a coercive environment and forced the majority of businesses and many residences to leave the area. This is reflected in a significant negative impact, not only on the demographic composition of the old city and on Palestinian businesses, but also all other sectors such as transportation, tourism, and services
- ItemCSV strategy for improving the competitiveness of the Hebron stone and marble sector through clustering(Al-Quds University, 2020-08-20) Nida' Abdelazez Dawood Al-Natsha; نداء عبد العزيز داود النتشةThis study aims to create a shared value strategy to enhance the competitiveness of the stone and marble sector in Hebron through the stone cluster. To achieve this goal, a descriptive-analytical and experimental approach was employed. The population of the study consist of stone factories (saws) registered in the Stone and Marble Federation, 175 factories. The study sample, which consists of 125 factories, only 102 of which were retrieved. A questionnaire was prepared as the primary tool to obtain the necessary data for this study, and data were collected And statistically processed using the SPSS program and the AMOS program for the structural equation modeling SEM, the study reached several results, the most important of which are: the shared value can be created through the cluster, CSV improves the competitiveness of the stone and marble sector more than if we relied on enhancing its competitiveness through Cluster directly, meaning that the creation of the shared value is an intermediate variable to improve competitiveness, which means that the study model proposed by the researcher is reliable and correct, as the study shows that the attitudes of the factory owners to create shared value are high, and that the ability of these factories to compete is medium, and that 66% of Respondents only participate in the activities of Cluster and see that they benefit from the activities of Cluster in a high way, and that 33% do not participate in the activities of Cluster and the majority of those who do not participate attribute the reason that they do not find benefit from participation, also the study shows that there is no difference in the statistical significance of creating a shared value strategy to improve competitiveness in the stone and marble sector in Hebron by clustering is attributed to (the legal nature of the organization, the total number of employees), while there are significant differences in creating the shared value strategy to improve the competitiveness of the stone and marble sector in Hebron through clustering, attributable to (the degree of education of the respondent and the location of the institution). Due to the importance of developing the Palestinian national economy, the study recommends the necessity of enhancing Porter’s diamond factors for competitiveness, by creating the shared value strategy through clustering to improve the competitiveness of the stone and marble sector in Hebron.
- ItemDeveloping Local Mathematical Equations For Estimation Above Ground Biomass in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera ) Tree Using Field Measurement in Jordan Valley Regio(Al-Quds University, 2022-05-24) ربان غسان صالح أبو الرب; Robban Ghassan Saleh Abu AlRobThe cultivation of Date Palms in the Jordan Valley region is a key for development in such arid regions, it has a high adaptation to drought and salinity conditions there, in recent years, the Jericho region has recorded a great spread in the planting area of Date Palm cultivation as a high-value fruit crop until it has become the most important branch for the agricultural sector in the region. Given that the quantitative evaluation of any resource is the first step in its management towards achieving sustainability. This study focused on Above Ground Biomass (AGB) as an effective tool for an environmental assessment, for the Jordan Valley region, any vegetation cover there, could be considered to be a sensitive indicator for climate change adaptation, accordingly the assessment of Date Palm biomass is useful in predicting the carbon sequestered in these arid ecosystems, as it is the most prevalent plant in addition to the possibility of monitoring climate change through the response of date palm trees. This thesis aims to develop a local equation for estimation AGB, by the structural parameters of Date Palm tree, to achieve the research aims field data were collected for three common varieties of JSAR within different age groups, the collected data was analyzed by using the Excel package and SPSS software. The results indicate that crown area (CA) is the best field parameter for estimating AGB of Date Palm trees at medium age by a function of crown biomass variable, while the height of trunk is the best field parameter for estimating AGB of mature Date Palm trees by a function of trunk biomass variable, each model has specific equations to use. Accordingly, the study came out with a set of recommendations, the most important of which is to adopt these equations as local models for estimation AGB and encourage research to develop them for higher accuracy, in addition to using remote sensing techniques in the measurement method.
- ItemEconomical assessment of supplementary irrigation of Olive trees in Jenin District/ Palestine(Al-Quds University, 2020-06-03) Sabreen Mohammad Masoud Khdour; صابرين محمد مسعود خضورThe growth of olive trees in Palestine considers as an important pillar of the Palestinian economy. The value of this sector is contributed to 10, 9 million US$ in 2014. This became sector become more and more fragile during the last three decades, and not profitable during the due to many reasons, one of these is the fluctuation of rainfall while most of the cultivars depend on rain-fed. The study aimed at knowing the economical assessment of supplementary irrigation of olive tree in Jenin District, where the study used the analytical descriptive method in the quantitative and qualitative aspect and the study population consist of all farmers who applied supplementary irrigation in their tree fields in Jenin District in the period 2019/2020, So that the study included a comprehensive survey of the study population of 40 farmers, 36 of whom were reached, and a questionnaire was distributed to them, as well as interviews with each of them separately. The researcher built the questionnaire and component of five paragraphs, after examining several previous studies and the tools used in them, SPSS, feasibility analysis in analyzing the results of the respondents' responses in the interview. The results showed that supplemental irrigation contributes to the growth of olive trees and increases their productivity. The irrigation of olive fields also gives a very positive economic impact on farmers, as production increases rapidly compared to the traditional one. It was noted that the land planted with irrigated olive trees was not used for cultivation before, and supplementary irrigation allowed being used efficiently. Besides, the production mechanisms used in irrigated agriculture do not differ from the traditional cultivation of olive trees, but there is a difference between irrigated olive fields based on irrigation methods, size of the area, type of tree, and age. On average 3 m3 of supplementary water/ tree was applied during the period Jun-September in six irrigation scheduling intervals. The olive oil production increased from 5.6 to 12.5 Kg/tree by using supplemental irrigation. The sustainability of the project shows that from the third year where the return on investment is 60% for freshwater and 61.5% using treat wastewater. The net profit was 808$/year.dunum for freshwater while using treat wastewater is 704$/year. dunum. The profit margin ratio of 65.5% for freshwater and 66.2% for using treats wastewater. The Net Present Values (NPV) is 3384$ when farmers invest 1,149$ using a freshwater technique with a 2.5% interest rate, for 6 years period, and he has the chance to gain total net profit of 4,470$ /dunum. Also, NPV of 3,187$ when the farmer invests 1145$ using treated wastewater irrigation, but he has the chance to gain a total net profit of 3,178$ /dunum. The study recommended that the government support land reclamation programs to enable farmers to use them to grow olive trees. Jenin Agricultural Directorate encourages farmers to grow irrigated olive trees by providing seedlings of suitable varieties and equipment, and that the Agricultural Extension Service conducts training courses for farmers on how to maintain and care for irrigated olive fields. This study recommended an effective, and sustainable method to help poor farmers to overcome the poverty condition, by providing sources of funding by government or NGO-s to irrigate a minimum area of 7 dunums. Also, the study recommended that the olive sector be pursued and led and enhanced cooperation between the public and private sectors, farmers ’associations, cooperatives, investors and NGOs interested in it by supporting wastewater treatment programs to be fit for agricultural use and provision to irrigate olive fields, and support the expansion of supplementary irrigation as much as possible, provided that Farmers follow the sound foundations of the irrigation process. Develop water harvesting techniques to meet their supplementary irrigation water needs.
- ItemEffect of Microbial Transglutaminase on Physico-Chemical Properties of Blended Nigella Sativa Protein Concentrate/Pectin Based Edible Film(Al-Quds University, 2021-08-25) Liali B M Ali; ليالي بلال محمد عليIntroduction: Plastics are produced about 350 million tons per year. It is widely used because it has several distinctive properties, which include being moldable, durable and cheap. But, plastic wastes are not biodegradable in the environment. Thus, this wastes accumulate in the seas, oceans and soils. Therefore, several methods were used to dispose of this wastes: landfilling wastes in the soil, but this negatively affects on the soil fertility because of accumulation of chemicals and toxins. Incineration of plastic wastes produce toxic gases that pollutes the environment and contributes to the aggravation of the global warming problem. Whereas, recycling of plastic wastes do not exceed 2% of total plastic wastes . As it is known that the bulk of plastic wastes is from food packaging waste. Therefore, it was sought to develop edible films and wrappers made of natural and biodegradable materials that also provide protection for food and form barriers between food and the environment to maintain its shelf life, safety and quality. In general, edible films are generated from proteins, polysaccharides and fats. In addition, films can be injected with antimicrobial and antioxidant substances to maintain food safety and quality. The edible based on protein have good mechanical properties. While, polysaccharides based on edible films provide films with good barrier for gases. Although, using proteins is a creative option to create edible films in food industry, it requires improvements in its properties to become more resistant to be handled during the application in food packaging and to ensure protection of food products. Hence, blending protein solution with other bio-polymer such as pectin or transglutaminase enzymes or both to improve the properties of edible films-based protein. Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify the proprieties of edible films of blending Nigella sativa protein concentrate (NSPC) and pectin (PEC). Also, to identify the effect of transglutaminase (TGase) enzyme on blending Nigella sativa protein concentrate/pectin based edible films characteristics, determine the water uptake and moisture content of Nigella sativa protein concentrate/pectin/TGase based edible films, and evaluate the biodegradability of Nigella sativa protein concentrate/pectin/TGase based edible films. XII Materials and Methods: Protein percent was determined in Nigella sativa protein concentrate; four film forming solution-based Nigella sativa protein were prepared by its blending with pectin at different ratios (40:0, 40:6, 40:10, 40:40 w/w) at pH 7.5 to investigate influence of different concentrations of pectin's on mechanical properties of NSPC based edible films. Furthermore, the addition of TGase enzyme to NSPC/PEC solution at pH 7.5 was evaluated in two concentrations (20 U/g NSPC, 10 U/g NSPC), in terms of mechanical properties. Finally, NSPC/PEC (40:40 w/w)/TGase(10U/g NSPC) films with high tensile strength (TS) and adequate elongation at break (EB) were selected from prepared films and tested for biodegradability, water content and water uptake of film and compared with other films free of of TGase. Results and Discussion: Blended NSPC/PEC (40:6 and 40:10 w/w) significantly increase the film thickness, whereas different concentrations of TGase have no significant differences on films thickness. Nevertheless, blended NSPC/PEC (40:6, 40:10 w/w) TGase (20U/g NSPC) has the tertiary synergistic effects on thickness values (p<0.05). Tensile strength was enhanced to about double as affected by pectin concentration (40:10 w/w). Low concentration of enzyme (10U/g NSPC) produced films with significantly higher tensile strength, especially when it was incorporated into NSPC/PEC (40:40 w/w), where films increased tensile strength to about 7 folds as compared to the NSPC films (p<0.05). Elastic films were obtained at ratios NSPC/PEC (40:6, 40:10 w/w) ,respectively. Moreover, the high concentration of TGase (20U/g NSPC) improved (EB) of films at ratios (40:6, 40:10 w/w) to 3 to 8 folds of these films in presence the low concentration of TGase, respectively. However, (10U/g NSPC) TGase has negative effects on elasticity (EB). Young’s module (YM) was not significantly affected in presence PEC or TGase. But, crosslinked NSPC/PEC (40:40 w/w) with low concentration of enzyme significantly increase the YM and stiffness. Finally, low concentration of TGase enzyme responsible for significantly increasing water content and uptake, as well as decreasing of biodegradability of NSPC/PEC (40:40 w/w) films. Results demonstrated that TGase can improve properties of NSPC films when blending with PEC. ينتج العالم من البلاستيك حوالي 350 مليون طن سنويًا. حيث يستخدم البلاستيك على نطاق واسع لأنه يحتوي على العديد من الخصائص المميزة مثل القابلية للتشكيل ودائم ورخي ص الثمن. لكن النفايات البلاستيكية غير قابلة للتحلل في البيئة، وهذا يسبب تراكم هذه النفايات في البحار والمحيطات والتربة. لذلك، تم استخدام عدة طرق للتخلص من هذه المخلفات وهي: دفن النفايات في التربة ولكن هذا يؤثر سلبا على خصوبة التربة بسبب تراكم المواد الكيميائية والسموم. اما طريقة حرق النفايات البلاستيكية تنتج غازات سامة تلوث البيئة وتساهم في تفاقم مشكلة الاحتباس الحراري. بينما إعادة تدوير المخلفات البلاستيكية لا تتجاوز 2 ٪ من إجمالي المخلفات البلاست يك. كما هو معروف أن الجزء الأكبر من نفايات البلاستيك ناتج عن نفايات تغليف المواد الغذائية. لذلك ، تم السعي إلى تطوير أغشية وأغلفة صالحة للأكل مصنوعة من مواد طبيعية وقابلة للتحلل في البيئة و توفر أيضًا الحماية للأغذية و كما تشكل حواجز بين الغذاء والبيئة للحفاظ على صلاحيتها وسلامتها وجودتها. بشكل عام ، يتم إنتاج الأغلف ة الصالحة للأكل من البروتينات والسكريات والدهون. بالإضافة إلى ذلك ، يمكن حقن الأغلفة بمواد مضادة للميكروبات ومضادات الأكسدة للحفاظ على سلامة الأغذية وجودتها . تمتلك الاغلفة الصالحة للأكل المصنعة من البروتين خواص ميكانيكية جيدة. بينم ا المصنعة من السكريات المتعددة تنتج أغلفة صالحة للأكل تمنع دخول الغازات للمنتج الغذائي التي قد تؤثر سلبا عليه. مؤخرا, أثبت الباحثون ان عملية مزج البوليمرات الطبيعية قد توفر أغلفة صالحة للأكل بخواص أفضل ميكانيك يا ولها القدرة على الثبات في البيئة المحيطة اعتمادا على خاصية النفاذية للغازا ت. لذا تم في هذا البح ث استخدام بروتين القزحة الذي تم استخلاصه م ن متبقيات استخلاص زيت القزحة من بذوره ليتم استغلالها نظرا لأنها متوافره بكميات كبيرة وتحتوي على كمية وافرة من البروتين المركز. وكما ذكرنا سابقا أن البروتينا ت تع د خيارًا مميز اً لتصنيع أغلفة صالحة للأكل. الا أن العديد من الدراسا ت تشير بأن خصائص هذه ا لاغلفة تحتاج الى تطوير لتصبح أكثر مقاومة, وتمتلك خواص ميكانيكية أفض ل 2 يمكن التعامل معها أثناء تطبيقها على تغليف المواد الغذائية, وكذلك لحماية المنتجات الغذائية. وبالتالي، فإن مزج محلول البروتين مع بوليمر حيوي آخر مثل البكتي ن وبوجو د إنزيم ترانس جلوتامي نيز قد يكون له دو ر فعال في تطوير الأغلفة الصالحة للأكل التي تعتمد في تصنيعها على البروتين. يهدف هذا البحث لدراسة تأثير تراكيز مختلفة من انزيم ترانس جلوتامي نيز والبكتين على الخصائص الميكانيكية ل لأغلفة المحضرة من البروتين، وتأثيرها على محتوى الماء فيها، و قدرتها على امتصاص الرطوبة من البيئة المحيطة، ومعدل تحلل الغلاف. تقوم منهجية الدراسة على التجربة والبحث, حيث تم تحضير أربعة أغلفة من بروتين القزحة المركز م ع تراكيزم ختلفة من البكتين ) 0 , 60 , 100 , 400 (ملغم وضبطهم عند درجة الحموضة 7.5 للتحقيق في تأثير تراكيز البكتين على الخواص الميكانيكية للأغلفة الصالحة للأكل التي صنعت من بروتين القزحة المركز. ثم تم دراسة تأثير إضافة إنزيم ترانس جلوتامينيز بعدة تراكيز ) 20,10,0 وحدة/غم بروتين( إلى محاليل المصنعة من بروتين القزحة المركز بتراكيز بكتين مختلفة وضبطهم عند درجة الحموضة 7.5 .بعد ذلك, تم اجراء فحص الخصائص الميكانيكية والسماكة على الاغلفة المنتجة. أخيرًا ، اخت ير الغلاف المحضر من بروتين القزحة المركز مع تركيز بكتين 400 ملغم بوجود الانزيم منخفض التركيز ) 10 وحدة/غم بروتين( لأنه ذات خصائص ميكانيك ية مناسبة من أجل اجراء فحص التحلل البيولوجي ,ومحتوى الماء, وامتصا ص الغلاف للماء , ومقارنتها مع نفس الغلاف لكن بغياب انزيم ترانس جلوتامينيز. اشارت نتائج الدراسة الى ان اضافة تراكيز بكتين ) 60 , 100 ملغم( الى محلول بروتين القزحة المركز حسن ت من سماكة ومرونة الاغلف ة المحضرة بشكل واضح. كما أوضحت النتائج انه عند اضافة ا لانزيم بتركيز منخفض زادت قيم قوة الشد للأغلفة في حين قيم المرونة والاستطالة قلت بينما زادت المرونة عند ارتفاع تركيز انزيم باستثناء عند أعلى تركيز للبكتين لم يتكون غلاف متماسك , حيث كان غير قابل للتعام ل معه او قياسه أودراسة خصائصه. أشارت النتائج الى انه لم يحدث فرق احصائي في معامل المرونة للغلاف الا عند اضافة بكتين بتركيز 400 ملغم بوجود اعلى تركيز مستخدم للأنزيم الى محلول بروتين القزحة المركز. أما من حيث محتوى الرطوبة للفيلم وقدرته على امتصاص الرطوبة , فان النتائج بينت ان الانزيم لديه تأثير واضح على زيادة محتوى الرطوبة للأغلفة وزيادة قدرتها على امتصاص الرطوبة ايضا. كما للإنزيم دور مباشر في تقليل معدل التحلل للغلاف . 3 يمكن الاستنتاج من هذه النتائج، أن للإنزيم دور فعال في تحسين الخصائص الميكانيكية للأغلفة المعتمدة على بروتين القزحة عن د مزجها مع البكتين .
- ItemEvaluation of Local Micromeria fruticosa and Its Essential Oil Effects on Weed Germination(Al-Quds University, 2020-01-11) Asmaa Mohammed Masharqa; اسماء محمد مشارقةMicromeria fruticosa is an evergreen shrub aromatic plant and endemic to the eastern Mediterranean region including Palestine. There was no information found about the yield of the M. fruticosa aerial parts and its essential oil (EO). In order to evaluate that, 586 plants were grown at Al-arroub station of the National Agriculture Research Center “NARC” in Hebron. Thereafter, plants were harvested eight times within two years. Then after each harvest, the EO was extracted by steam-distillation from the fresh material. The GC-MS analysis was performed on interval hourly samples took during the EO extraction for the August/2018 and October/2018 harvests. Effect of seasonal and extraction time on the EO profile were evaluated. Also, the effect of the EO on weed germination was determined on soil samples infested by common weed species with three different concentrations (0.05, 0.1. and 0.2%). The results shown the average aerial parts production of M. fruticosa for every plant as fresh weight for the seasons of 2017 and 2018, were 0.20 and 0.22 Kg, respectively. The yearly yield of aerial parts for 2017 and 2018 was 680 and 748 Kg/dunam, respectively. Oil density was 0.9459 ± 0.00184 and percentage of average oil production as fresh matter basis was 0.82 and 0.80% for the season 2017 and 2018, respectively. Moreover, the results appeared that the late summer months (August-October) show the highest percentages of the EO extracted from M.fruticosa. A total of 191 compounds were identified in all samples with abundant of the monoterpene pulegone in all with varied proportions. The GC-MC analysis found that the EO got from August and October/2018 harvests reveal high percentages of pulegone (66.22 and 63.75%, respectively), which is the compound that causes inhibition of germination for weeds’ seeds, with 2 hours of extraction. The EO severely affected on the number of germinated weeds. It also observed that the inhibition rate was markedly increased with the increasing of the EO concentration, where the mean of the number of germinated weeds for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% was decreased by 24, 27 and 63% respectively compared to the control group P ≤ 0.001. The present study results showed that the EO of M. fruticosa could be used in biocontrol practices, especially in organic farms, as an anti-germination agent.
- ItemLegislative Framework to institutionalize the management of the Local Plants and seeds among farmers(Al-Quds University, 2021-06-25) Inaam Yosri H arbi Amro; انعام يسري حربي عمروAgriculture is the most dominant use of land on Earth and will remain so as the population of the world and the demand for global food increase. There are many important agricultural inputs; among others, seeds is one of the most important agricultural input. Seed is a core element of many debates on technology creation and transition, biodiversity, globalization, and equity, in addition to seed significance in processing, food security, and rural development. Therefore, the sustainable availability of good quality seeds is a significant issue for sustainability. A local variety is defined as a plant variety for a particular crop produced by traditional farmers through its cultivation in a particular area over the centuries and farmers select the superior plants and through compulsory selection through exposure to local pests and diseases, but it has not been subject to modern methods of improvement. Local seeds are also known as a cultivar produced by traditional farmers, the local variety is adapted to local environmental conditions and agricultural practices and is also compliant with the tastes and uses of society. It is also classified as a single crop plant that has evolved from wild plants found in nature, through compulsory selection. The prevalence of threats to local seeds, virus-infected seeds, and the presence of companies competing for national products, as well as the precipitation and fluctuation of rainfall, leading to the decline and extinction of those domestic varieties which are suitable and adapted to the prevailing climate and topography. Have for the time being led us to consider the effects of this poor situation. The presence of commercial agricultural enterprises depending on the introduction of imported hybrid seeds and the ability of enterprises to promote their products and sell them to markets has led farmers to refrain from growing local seeds, irrespective of the problems and disadvantages of using improved seeds. The problem of the study lies in the absence of a national strategy to support farmers' use of local seeds, despite their adherence to them as a heritage asset. Thus, the reasons for the reluctance to use the seeds were discussed and a recommendation were introduced to govern and support the use of local seeds. The identification of a policy and legislation regulating the relationship between the Ministry of Agriculture and the local seed farmers in order to help their re-establishment in the region. Within the Institutional implementing and organizing framework, the national authority which will have the mandate and legal power to effectively enforce them should be defined by seed laws. Aiming at examine the different factors influencing local seed management and its reactions to local seed management in Palestine to achieve the research goal of developing guidance to increase the effectiveness of local seed management projects, the study provided a systematic qualitative analysis and then developed a detailed methodology including conducting interviews and collecting research data. Data obtained from interviews, and literature reviews, were analyzed using the system-specific analytical method of contextual interdependencies and information coding. The purpose of data analysis is to achieve the relevant contextual factors and coping strategies in Palestine for local seed management. the results are presented in the form of a policy prief for improving the management of the local seed sector in the Palestine, this can be investigated through the various relationships and interventions between governmental and non-governmental sectors in local seed sector that will have effect the management of this sector in Palestine based on the CIT theory. All countries of the world are trying to preserve their pure strains (landraces) from their local seeds, as they are a source of biodiversity and genetic yield. It is important to know that, developed countries have made great strides in preserving local seeds. So as, a policy was developed to guide and make recommendations to policymakers in Palestine about the roles, they can play in designing and implementing methods for controlling and maintaining the local seed sector. Where they should increase research and innovation in this field, making use of the highest efficiency from the available funds in light of the low or almost non-existent government budget to finance research and development projects, especially since this field lacks sufficient data to take advantage of all available resources. Some points were recommended at different levels to be considered by all local seed relevant stakeholder, at the Ministry level like the development of ministerial institutions specialized in improving and producing local seeds (National Seed Bank),Cooperating with other countries to make national seed banks similar to what they have to gain experience in this sector, Organizing training courses for farmers and agricultural engineers continuously according to the seasons and clarifying the importance of local seeds. in addition to Gathering local information and the experiences available from farmers, verify the information in a thoughtful manner to develop the information and adopt it as sound and reliable information. Also, some points at civil and non-governmental institutions level like developing existing local seed banks and seeking to open new branches at the governorate level, cooperating in establishing local seedbanks with government agencies, supporting farmers in marketing their local varieties and related products at reasonable prices, providing farmers and those in need of local seeds free of charge or at a nominal cost to ensure the continuity of projects. facilitating the establishment of real partnerships between different institutions and also with the government sector, in addition to the financial support for farmers with expanded reclamation projects that will serve the farms and focus, through these projects, on local agriculture and focus on financing that ensures project sustainability الزراعة هي المصدر الأساسي لتوفير الغذاء على وجه الأرض وستظل كذلك مع الازدياد الكبير في عدد السكان في العالم. ويوجد العديد من المدخلات الزراعية، واحد اهم هذه المدخلات البذور، وتعد البذور عنصرا أساسيا في تحديد العملية الزراعية. وتوافر البذور بشكل مستدام من اهم العوامل المؤثرة على العملية الزراعية، وتعتبر البذور البلدية هي الحل المستدام لتوفير البذور بشكل دائم لدى المزارعين، ويتم تعريف الصنف المحلي على انه الصنف النباتي لمحصول معين بتم انتاجه من قبل المزارعين التقليديين من خلال زراعته في منطقة معينة على مر العصور ويتم اختيار النباتات المتفوقة، ويتم تكيف الصنف مع الظروف البيئية المحيطة والذوق العام واستخدامات المجتمع أصبحت البذور المحلية مهددة بسبب إيجاد بدائل من قبل الشركات التجارية ببذور هجينة لها القدرة على ان تقاوم الظروف البيئية الصعبة والفيروسات والامراض ولكن لا يمكن اكثارها من قبل المزارعين بشكل طبيعي الا ان انتاجها العالي ومقاومتها أدى الى تراجع استخدام البذور البلدية وانقراضها. وتكمن مشكلة الدراسة في عدم وجود استراتيجية او خطة وطنية لدعم البذور البلدية وتشجيع المزارعين على استخدامها، وبالتالي ستتم مناقشة أسباب الابتعاد عن استخدام البذور البلدية وتقديم توصيات لإدارة قطاع البذور البلدية وتقديمها للجهات المعنية من اجل المساعدة في تحسين أوضاع قطاع البذور البلدية ومن اجل هذا الهدف تمت مراجعة القوانين المشروعة المتعلقة بالبذور البلدية في القانون الفلسطيني وكل ما يتعلق بها من أوامر ومن ثم تم تجهيز محاور رئيسية لمناقشة الجهات ذات العلاقة ومقابلتهم للوصول الى توصيات تزيد من فعالية المشاريع المتعلقة بالبذور البلدية وتم تطوير منهجية كاملة من انشاء أسئلة المقابلات وجمع بيانات البحث تم تحليل البيانات التي تم الحصول عليها من المقابلات ومراجعة المستندات باستخدام طريقة التحليل الخاصة بالنظام للترابط السياقية وترميز المعلومات من خلال برنامج الاطلس، الغرض من تحليل البيانات هو إيجاد الترابط بين جميع العوامل ذات الصلة واستراتيجيات المواجهة في فلسطين لدارة البذور البلدية. وفي النهاية نلاحظ ان جميع دول العالم تحاول الحفاظ على سلالاتها النقية من بذورها المحلية، فهي مصدر للتنوع البيولوجي والمحصول الوراثي، ومن المهم معرفة أن الدول المتقدمة قد قطعت أشواطا كبيرة في الحفاظ على البذور المحلية. ونتيجة لذلك، تم تطوير سياسة تهدف إلى توجيه وتقديم التوصيات لصانعي السياسات في فلسطين حول الدور الذي يمكنهم لعبها في تصميم وتنفيذ أساليب للتحكم في قطاع البذور المحلي تطويره. حيث يجب زيادة البحث والابتكار في هذا المجال، والاستفادة من الأموال المتاحة للمشاريع المتعلقة في البذور البلدية في ظل انخفاض الميزانية الحكومية أو شبه انعدامها لتمويل مشاريع البحث والتطوير، خاصة وأن هذا المجال يفتقر إلى البيانات الكافية للاستفادة منها. كما تمت التوصية ببعض النقاط على مستويات مختلفة للنظر فيها من قبل جميع أصحاب المصلحة المحليين المعنيين بالبذور، على مستوى الوزارة مثل تطوير المؤسسات الوزارية المتخصصة في تحسين وإنتاج البذور المحلية )بنك البذور الوطني(، والتعاون مع البلدان الأخرى لجعل بنوك البذور الوطنية مماثلة. إلى ما لديهم من خبرة في هذا القطاع، تنظيم دورات تدريبية للمزارعين والمهندسين الزراعيين بشكل مستمر حسب المواسم وتوضيح أهمية البذور المحلية بالإضافة إلى جمع المعلومات المحلية والخبرات المتاحة من المزارعين، والتحقق من المعلومات بطريقة مدروسة لتطوير المعلومات واعتمادها كمعلومات سليمة وموثوقة. أيضا، بعض النقاط على مستوى المؤسسات الأهلية وغير الحكومية مثل تطوير بنوك البذور المحلية القائمة والسعي لفتح فروع جديدة على مستوى المحافظات، والتعاون في إنشاء بنوك بذور محلية مع الجهات الحكومية، ودعم المزارعين في تسويق أصنافهم المحلية والمنتجات ذات الصلة بأسعار مناسبة، وتوفير المزارعين والمحتاجين إلى بذور محلية خالية من البذور. تهمة أو بتكلفة رمزية لضمان استمرارية المشاريع. تسهيل إقامة شراكات حقيقية بين المؤسسات المختلفة وكذلك مع القطاع الحكومي، بالإضافة إلى الدعم المالي للمزارعين بمشاريع استصلاح موسعة تخدم المزارع وتركز من خلال هذه المشاريع على الزراعة المحلية والتركيز على التمويل الذي يضمن المشروع الاستدامة.
- ItemRole of Cluster Approach in Improving Humanitarian Response in The Gaza Strip(Al-Quds University, 2019-12-28) Mahmoud Omar Mahmoud Al Majdalawi; محمود عمر مجدلاويThe study is aimed to identify the role of cluster approach in improving the humanitarian response in the Gaza Strip from clusters member’s perspective. The importance of this study stems from the importance of the humanitarian action which is intended to save people lives, alleviate suffering and maintain human dignity. The humanitarian response to a crisis is essential in terms of people protection, and ensuring the accountability of aid delivery. The cluster approach is intended to meet these objectives by enhancing partnerships and coordination system with all humanitarian actors, including NGOs, both international and national, as they play a crucial role in the humanitarian system. In order to achieve this study, the researcher adopts the descriptive analytical method. The researcher designed a research questionnaire and conducted six interviews to identify the role of cluster approach in improving the humanitarian response. The researcher targeted the whole study population using the census approach. In total 105 questionnaires were collected online and were filled out by clusters’ members. The study has been conducted in the Gaza strip, Palestine during the year 2019. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software and using different analysis methods. The results of the study show that there is significant relationship between the cluster approach application and improvements of humanitarian response. Concretely, the results indicate that the cluster approach in the Gaza strip has a clear and good role in improving the humanitarian response. Additionally, the results show a partial commitment from partners that contributed to overall clusters’ role. The results of the study agree with various previous studies which show that the cluster approach is an effective tool to improve the overall humanitarian action. However, the study showed that there is needed improvement to enhance the overall performance and effectiveness. Moreover, the study results indicated that the performance of clusters differs from cluster to cluster due to different factors, and numbers of challenges associated with cluster approach application in the Gaza strip. Finally, the researcher made recommendations to the cluster coordinators and cluster lead, cluster partners, local authority and donors. Finally, suggestions for future study have been presented.
- ItemThe accountability to affected people practiced by the humanitarian actors while supporting the resilience of the residents of Masafer Yatta from the residents’ perspective(Al-Quds University, 2020-06-04) Bilal Fakhri Zaki Al-Sharif; بلال فخري زكي الشريفHumanitarian disasters create humanitarian needs to massive number of victims to which different actors intervene. Governments have the lead and obligation to be the first one to assist their own citizens and offer support to victims from other countries as well. But in many situations, governments can’t respond to the needs alone. Other states and many humanitarian actors intervene to minimize the human suffering and help the victims to recover and return to their normal life as soon as possible. The humanitarian system has grown and the need to pave the way for fundamental changes became a high demand in the working environment. It recommends the humanitarian action to put disaster affected people first. Hugu Slim said “It is right, therefore, that humanitarian action should be deeply people-centred. Good humanitarian action is a social encounter between two forms of agency: the human agency of those affected and the humanitarian agency of those trying to help them. Together, they must share a diagnosis of the situation and generate appropriate solutions which respect people’s reality, not only their humanity” (Slim, 2020, para 8). The accountability to the affected people became one major approach that all humanitarian actors should integrated through their work. In 2014, the humanitarian actors published the Core Humanitarian Standard on Quality and Accountability that can be voluntarily adopted by organisations and individuals to guide and evaluate their work (Gibbons, 2018). In a unique situation, the disaster of Masafer Yatta (MY) is one of the longest disasters. The cause of their disaster is the occupation that started in 1967 and doesn’t seem to end in the coming future. The consequences of this disaster haven’t stop since it started. As a respond, many humanitarian actors have intervened to support the residents. The iv humanitarian actors have faced a coercive environment minimizing their capacity to intervene. Moreover, many of the projects the humanitarian actors executed, and assistants provided were either destroyed or confiscated. During many years of work, the humanitarian actors published tens of reports demonstrating the status of MY, its problems and their own respond. To the knowledge of the researcher, no study was made to evaluate the role of the humanitarian actors in supporting the resilience of MY residents from the residents’ point of view nor to assess their respect to the commitments guiding the accountability to the affected people. The nature of MY’s problems, the area and the lifestyle of the residents, directed the researcher to adapt the analytical descriptive approach in order to reach the objective of the research. The main tool used was focus group interviews in addition to individual meetings and field visits. Other meetings were also held with managers of key humanitarian actors working in MY to get the wider humanitarian actors’ vision and perspective of the humanitarian environment. The study concluded that so far, humanitarian actors have fairly cooperated and managed to provide the residents with the essential urgent needs and created projects that enhanced the capacity of the residents to face the continuous hazards and improved their basic living conditions to cope with the changing needs of the new generation. The study revealed that the humanitarian actors did not actively engage the people with designing, executing and evaluating the projects. Moreover, they did not present clear neutral systems addressing the complaints of the people. The researcher recommends researchers to study other fields in MY like the role of the Palestinian government or the problems of the Bedouins’ cluster. تتسبب الكوارث باحتياجات انسانية لأعداد هائلة من الضحايا. الحكومات لها الدور السباق والاجباري لتكون أول من يساعد مواطنيها ومن ثم الضحايا من الدول الاخرى أيض ا . ولكن وفي بعض الاحيان، لا تستطيع الحكومات أن تستجيب للاحتياجات بمفردها. تعرض دول اخرى والعديد من المنظمات الانسانية المساعدة من اجل تخفيف المعاناة الانسانية ومساعدة الضحايا ان يتعافوا والعودة لممارسة حياتهم الطبيعية بالسرعة الممكنة. لقد تطور العمل الانساني ونما أوصبحت الحاجة ملحة لإج ا رء تغيي ا رت اساسية في بيئة العمل بحيث يصبح الناس المتأثرين في واجهة الاهتمام، يقول هوجو سليم "لذلك من الصحيح أن العمل الإنساني يجب أن يك ون محوره الإنسان بعمق، العمل الإنساني الجيد هو لقاء اجتماعي بين شكلين من أشكال الوكالة: الوكالة الإنسانية للمتضررين والوكالة الإنسانية لمن يحاول مساعدتهم. يجب أن يتشاركوا م عا في تشخيص الحالة وايجاد حلول مناسبة تحترم واقع الناس وليس إنسانيتهم فقط" (Slim, 2020, para 8) . المسائلة تجاه الناس المتأثرة اصبح محو ا ر اساسي ا يتوجب على كافة العاملين في المجال الانساني اد ا رجه في اعمالهم. في عام 2014 ، نشرت الجهات الفاعلة الإنسانية المعيار الإنساني الأساسي بشأن الجودة والمساءلة الذي يمكن أن تتبناه المنظمات والأف ا رد ط واعية لتوجيه عملهم وتقييمه ( (Gibbons, 2018 . في وضع استثنائي فان الكارثة التي ألمت بسكان مسافر يطا هي الكارثة الاطول. سبب هذه الكارثة هو الاحتلال الاس ا رئيلي الذي بدأ في العام 1967 والذي لا يبدو انه سيتوقف في المستقبل المنظور. كما أن اثار هذه الكارثة لم تتوقف منذ ان بدأت. واستجابة للاحتياجات المتواصلة، تدخلت مؤسسات انسانية كثيرة لدعم هؤلاء السكان. واجهت الجهات الفاعلة في المجال الانساني بيئة قسرية هدفت الى اضعاف قدرتها على التدخل. وفي ذات الوقت، فان كثي ا ر من المشاريع التي نفذتها او المساعدات التي قدمتها تلك الجهات الانسانية قد تم تدميرها او مصادرتها. vi خلال عملهم لعدة سنين، نشرت الجهات الفاعلة في المجال الانساني عش ا رت التقارير التي تظهر حالة مسافر يطا والمشاكل التي تواجهها واستجابة هذه المنظمة او تلك لهذه الاحتياجات. لم يتوصل الباحث الى أي تقرير من أي جهة يتناول تقييما عاما حول دور الجهات الفاعلة في المجال الانساني في دعم صمود سكان مسافر يطا أو مدى احت ا رمهم للالت ا زمات التي تحتم مسائلتهم امام الناس المتأثرة خلال عملهم كما ي ا ره السكان أنفسهم. ان طبيعة المشكلة والمنطقة ونمط حياة سكانها قد وجهت الباحث لتبني المنهج ال وصفي التحليلي من اجل الوصول الى هدف البحث. اختار الباحث اداة "المجموعات المركزة" بالإضافة الى الاجتماعات الفردية والزيا ا رت الميدانية. ومن اجل تعزيز رؤية الباحث والحصول على الاطار العام الاوسع لعمل المنظمات الانسانية، فقد قام الباحث بعمل اجتماعات مع بعض مد ا رء تلك المؤسسات. إ ن ما خلصت اليه هذه الد ا رسة أ نه حتى الآن، نسقت الجهات في المجال الانساني في ما بينها بدرجة جيدة من أجل تزويد سكان مسافر يطا باحتياجاتهم الاساسية والطارئة بعد حدوث اية مشكلة، بالإضافة الى ذلك، فقد قامت هذه الجهات الانسانية بإنشاء مشاريع ع ززت قدرة السكان على مواجهة الكوارث المستمرة وحسنت شروط حياتهم الاساسية وقدرتهم على التأقلم مع الاحتياجات المتجددة للأجيال الجديدة. وكشفت الد ا رسة أ ن الجهات الفاعلة في المجال الإنساني لم تشرك الناس بنشاط في تصميم وتنفيذ وتقييم المشاريع، علاوة على ذلك، لم يقدموا أنظمة محايدة واضحة لمعالجة شكاوى الناس. يوصي الباحث بإج ا رء أبحاث تتناول جوانب أخرى مثل دور الحكومة الفلسطينية أو مشاكل المجتمع البدوي في تلك المنطقة.
- ItemThe use of Sustainable Development Indicators for promoting mechanisms to develop Tourism at Natural Heritage Sites of Bethlehem and its effect on local communities(Al-Quds University, 2020-01-01) Rawan George Awwad; روان جورج عوادThis study was implemented during January 2019 to February 2020, the main goal of this study is to examine adapting the international sustainable indicators to develop the tourism in Natural Heritage sites in Bethlehem and its effect economically on the local communities. This study was implemented in Bethlehem Governate. The study targeted locations are Mar Saba Monastery Area, Salomon’s Pools Area, Town of Battir and Wadi Khreitoun Area. This study targeted the key players and managers in local governmental and non-governmental organizations who work for alternative types of tourism in Bethlehem. The main data collection method was used is the questionnaire. The data was analyzed by SPSS. In the Middle East region and in Palestine, they are recognized as an attractive tourism destination because they contain religious, historical, cultural and natural heritage sites. To specify Bethlehem is considered a site that contains international assets to attract alternative types of tourism such as Natural Heritage tourism. Natural Heritage Tourism means; the total of the elements of biodiversity, including flora and fauna, ecosystems and geological structures. The aim of this tourism is to raise the number of tourists, let them stay longer and to be involved with the local communities. All of this circle will benefit the local communities socially and economically. This study worked to adapt the international sustainable development indicators for promoting mechanisms to develop tourism at Natural Heritage Sites of Bethlehem because tourism is the major industry in Palestine that contributes to raising the percentage of GDP and offer job opportunities to the local communities. The previous studies showed that the Palestinians researchers and authors agreed on the importance of sharing the work of tourism with stakeholders to promote different types of tourism also to ensure the sustainability. On the other hand, the studies showed that Palestine need to work for; developing local legislation and regulations in order to save its heritage places and to work for a master plan of tourism. According to the previous studies, interviews, and researches, there are international indicators to adapt and to ensure sustainability of natural heritage sites. These Indicators are; Economic, environmental, social and governance. The researcher adapted these indicators to the Palestinian situation, and the results showed that the most important indicator to work for is the environmental, the second is the social, the third is the economic and the final indicator to work for is the governance. In Addition, the previous studies were agreed on setting international components to be available in the natural heritage places to be listed as world natural heritage site, these components are; environmental, climate, biodiversity and cultural aspects such as heritage and religious sites. These components were adapted to the targeted sites and the results showed that those places can be considered as natural heritage sites. The results showed that Battir is number one to be considered as a natural heritage site, the second is Mar Saba Monastery Area, the third is Salomon's Pools Area and the final one is Wadi Khreitoun Area. In addition to the international components, the previous studies summarize that there are standard elements to be included in natural heritage sites, these elements are; the location of the site, the availability of public services, to have rest areas or walking paths, the local communities’ involvement and the final is to work for decreasing the effect of the external threats to ensure the development of tourism. Most of the targeted population weighted for the importance to work for decreasing the effect of the local restrictions of the targeted sites such as; the political division of the areas, the settlers sudden visits and the closed management of some areas
- ItemاThe Impact of Applying the Monitoring and Evaluation System on the Institutional Performance of Atfaluna Society for Deaf Children(Al-Quds University, 2021-12-13) بتول إسماعيل مهرة; Batoul Ismail MuhraAtfaluna Society for Deaf Children in Gaza is an institution dedicated to assisting children and people with hearing disabilities in obtaining rehabilitation, education, and vocational training. One of the most important aspects of any institution performance is project monitoring and evaluation. This study aimed to determine the impact of monitoring and evaluation system on the performance of Atfaluna Society for deaf children institution in the Gaza Strip. The study utilized cross-sectional design to study The impact of Applying Monitoring and Evaluation System on The Institutional Performance Case Study of Atfaluna Society for Deaf Children. Monkey survey online program was used to calculate a sample size from the target population (total 134 employees). Two methods of data collection were included; first, an interviewed questionnaire, which targeted employees, hired six months or more. This included 83 employees with a response rate of 83%. Second, semi-structured questions the in-depth interviews with four KII, and the response rate was 100%. Sixty- six percent of the participants were females. The study showed the cumulative mean scores are 84%, 82%, 79%, 80%, and 83% for planning, technical expertise, stakeholder's involvement, management, and performance respectively. Multiple linear regression showed 58.6% of the performance of the institution is predicted by the examined domains and there is a statistically significant effect of all examined domains on the institution performance (p- values >0.05) except for the stakeholders' involvement as the p-value is ( < 0.05). In addition, 1% increase in planning increases performance by 42%, which is higher than the effects of technical expertise and management. Within the in-depth interviews, the KII emphasized the importance of all monitoring and evaluation domains especially planning on the performance of the institution. In conclusion, the planning process, technical expertise, and management participation domains of the monitoring and evaluation system have a positive and significant effect on the performance of Atfalunal society for deaf children in Gaza, according to our findings. The performance of Atfaluna institution for deaf children is very good in general, as it plays a major role in executing projects at the specified time and cost, which made it a pioneer in its field. There is a necessity to strengthen the role of the stakeholder and management participation in monitoring and evaluation and to take more attention to some items related to technical expertise and planning domains of the evaluation and monitoring system.
- Itemاتجاهات الإدارات الوسطى للتنظيمات الحكومية الفلسطينية في محافظة جنين نحو تدريبهم(AL-Quds University, 2013-08-23) وفاء عرسان عبد الله جرار; Wafa Ersan Abdallah Jarar; عبد الفتاح الشملة; اياد خليفة; سهيل سلطان
- Itemاتجاهات العاملين في المصارف التجارية العامة في محافظة رام الله والبيرة نحو انظمة الادارة الخاصه لهم(AL-Quds University, 2008-08-15) مروان ناصر محمد مفارجه; MARWAN NASER MOHAMMED MAFARJEH; احمد ابو ديه; د. محمد بدر; د. شريف ابو كرش
- Itemاتجاهات المتعاملين مع المصاريف العاملة في جنوب الضفة الغربية في تفضيل التعامل مع المصارف التجارية والاسلامية(AL-Quds University, 2007-06-17) محمد عارف موسى ابو ارميلة; Mohammed Aref Mousa Abu Rumaila; شريف ابو كرش; سمير حزبون; سمير ابو زنيد
- Itemاتجاهات المديرين والموظفين نحو تفويض السلطة في مديريات الوزارات في محافظة نابلس(AL-Quds University, 2017-02-04) عصام الدين عوني علي أحمد; Issam Eddin Awni Ali Ahmed; عبد الفتاح الشملة; د. إياد خليفة; د. محمد الجعبري
- Itemاتجاهات طلبة جامعة القدس لتنمية رأس المال البشري وتعزير القدرة التنافسية(AL-Quds University, 2017-05-08) مرام محمد يوسف عليان; maram mohammad yousef alian; إبراهيم عوض; د. عزمي الاطرش; د.عامر مرعي
- Itemاتجاهات متدربي شرطة محافظة رام الله و البيرة نحو اثر التدريب على ادائهم الوظيفي(AL-Quds University, 2006-02-14) كفاح اسماعيل محمود أبو عودة; Kefah Ismail Mahmoud Abu Odeh; عبدالرحمن الحاج; د. يوسف احمد ابو فارة; د.عبد الفتاح احمد ابو شملةThe major objective of this study is to explore the attitudes of the policemen trainees of Ramallah and Al-Berieh governarate towards the impact of their occupational performance within the period from December/2004 to December/2005, within the existence of law performance rate phonenomina of the members of Palestinian Police system which negatively affects the level and quality of offered service for the beneficiaries. The study also aims at introducing the reasons behind this phenomena. The study’s sample covered (108) members of the Palestinian Police staff in Ramallah and Al-Berieh governarate who have attended training courses in several topics held by Palestinian Police system to train and rehabilitate the staff to promote its performance level, the study was restricted to those operating in Ramallah and Al-Berieh governarate for the considerable and good level of training they have got. Moreover, the study also aims at addressing training programs held for most of Palestinian Police departments in Ramallah and Al-Berieh governarate. The study consists of questions and assumptions that discuss the attitudes of the trainees of policemen in Ramallah and Al-Berieh governarate towards their occupational performance according to the variations of; age, academic qualification, period of training, training administrational standards. To achieve the objectives of the study, data and information have been collected from primary resources (books, references, and periodicals), and from main resources represented in the questionnaire of the active policemen who attended training in various topics within the period from December/ 2004, to December/ 2005. This questionnaire is of tow sections; the first consists of demographic data related to age, academic qualification, and training. While the second part consists of data related to occupational performance of active policemen. The questionnaire statements are developed in both negative, and positive aspects, and each statement is given a stated measure to estimate the importance, and significance of the statement, in addition to conducting interviews with trainers, trainees, and officials of police commands. And also investigating the formal and informal reports of Palestinian Police system on the training and performance activities. Conducting the statistical analysis of using Cronbach (Alfa ) factor reliability to measure measurement stability, and internal coherence of the questionnaire, it has been found that Cronbach ( Alfa ) equals (0.62 ). This result indicates that the questionnaire is of considerable stability that fulfills the aims of questionnaire. The study also uses several statistical methods for the purpose of analysis among which descriptive statistic like calculation repetition, averages, standerized deviations, and conceptual rates. In addition to the use of One Way Anova, and Scheffe Test for comparisons between mathematical averages, the most significant results of the study are the following The study results indicated the differences regarding performance which caused by the age change factor, also the scientific qualification factor, the change of time factor, the training department changing factor.quality of the training factor, which is changeable, the content of training also is chainable. The study indicated results negative indicators of training. Training doesn’t have required positive impact for the following reasons. Training contents and materials were distributed over participants after training sessions, which didn’t allow them to benefit from them as possible, selecting the trainees by their officials, and not according to their actual needs, training wasn’t connected with promotion encouragement or any other advantages, in sufficiency of training infrastructure like halls, and requirements, lock of colorful training methods, besides the school and academic way of dealing with the trainees by the trainers. Lack of specialized and transformal training, lack of sufficient time for training subjects like; computer, English language, and Hebrew language, most of the training courses were theoretical The study indicated results positive indicators of training which refer to the following, high commitment of trainees, conducting stage and continuous evaluation by the training program supervisors through following up the trainees, and communicating the Special Police department in the first stage or training, interaction of members of different ranks, and administrative levels, which provisioned future contact, and discussion, concentrating on participatory attitude in training, opening discussion topics among trainees, their officials and surrounding environment by the training. The outcome of the study could be stated by the following recommendations: Processing training according specific, sides, directions, and aims training that is reflected on police construction, scientific study to determine the training needs which gives training considerations, aims, requested concentration points, in addition to the other determinants with considering all different administrative levels, improving requested construction to increase training efficiency, and preparing the training halls that can be suitable for processing professional training, depending of training on group teamwork, and duties sharing upon general planing. Analyzing job performance of the police employee, and extracting results about difficulties that face him. To publish the positive effect of training and get the maximum utility, training must be for all police employees by a complete, and continuing from, giving trainees training fields jobs, and giving them enough time to finish that
- Itemاثر استخدام المياه المعالجة في ري اشجار الزيتون على النمو، الانتاج، والجودة(AL-Quds University, 2014-08-16) صالح مصلح صالح علي; Saleh Mesleh Saleh Ali; ثمين هيجاوي; د. جهاد عبادي; Hassan Abu Qaoud