Bioactivity against plant fungal pathogens and germination studies of Salvia fruticusa Mill and Organium syriacum
Fatima Al.Zahra’ Hussamaldein Manasra
فاطمة الزهراء حسام الدين فرح مناصرة
Botrytis cinerea is the most common causative agent of a disease of gray molds which is one of the most destructive diseases infecting over 230 different plants worldwide such as tomatoes, grapes, and strawberries causes many economic losses. Also, F. oxysporum a soil-borne facultative pathogen with a global distribution, causes perennial wilt and foot-, root- and bulb disease in a wide range of economically important crops such as tomatoes sweet potatoes, legumes, cucurbits and bananas, both fungi can be controlled by several ways, such as cultural and chemical controls. Unfortunately, they develop high resistance to several chemical fungicides which have a negative environmental, plant, animal and human impacts. So several alternatives were suggested including biological control and plant extracts to reduce them. In recent decades medicinal plant including S.fruticosa and O. syriacum are being used as a potential source of significant compounds in medicines, cosmetics, and food industry. Because of the safety concerns it contains, and their bioactive essential oils which proved by several studies that have antifungal and antioxidant effects. Thus the objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal properties of Thyme and Sage natural products against B. cinerea and F. oxysporum. Sage and Thyme leaves were collected in 2019 from different locations in Bani Na'im. Then leaves extracted by using 99.0% ethanol, and essential oils were isolated by steam distillation. Through this process hydrosol obtained, the effect of each natural product against B. cinerea and F. oxysporum tested by using Mycelium growth rate assay . The media used for fungal is Potatoes Dextrose Agar (PDA). The results showed that both plants leaves extracts , Essential Oils and hydrosol had an antifungal effect on mycelium growth against both pathogenic fungi compared to the control sample (without adding any natural products) . The results showed that S.fruticosa leafs extracts , EOs and hydrosol had an antifungal effect on mycelia growth of B. cinerea and F. oxysporum pathogens. Statistical analyses showed that there is significant differences in the rate of reduction (R) as the concentration of leaves extract or EOs increases until they totally inhibited (100% ) both fungi growth . On the other hand, statistical analyses showed that there are no significant differences in the rate of reduction from hydrosol at the used concentrations. In addition to that O. syriacum results showed high antifungal activity of its leaves extract and essential oil that inhibit the mycelium growth rate (R) reached up to 100% against both pathogenic fungi and the minimum inhibition concentration of their leave extracts and EOs were (0.01%) . However, O. syriacum hydrosol wasn't significant in the the rate of reduction (R) of B. cinerea and F. oxysporum at the used concentrations . The results of S.fruticosa and O. syriacum leaves extract , essential oils and hydrosol antifungal activity and their antifungal agents are of particular importance for managing pathogenic fungi ,so it’s very important to increase .The cultivated areas of sage and thyme ,in order to efficiently use them to produce bio- pesticides. In order to improve Sage and Thyme germination , many different treatments were done through this experiment, in order to study their effect on seed germination , for achieving rapid, uniform and higher germination which will lead to higher plant stand establishment. In order to increase seed germination due to their economic value . six treatments and control which were subjected to sand paper scarification , chilling, growth regulator treatment using Gibberellins and kinetin in 500 ppm for 24hours and 48 hours were done . After each treatment, the seeds were cultivated within the planting bed and placed on filter paper. Germination counting was started after 3days. Results showed the effect of different treatment on sage seed germination rate . Kinetin growth regulator treatment for 24 hours showed the highest germination percentage (80.7%) compared to the control one. However chilling showed the lowest germination percentage( 22.5%) among all treatments. On the other hand, result of the treatment on thyme showed that, the highest germination percentage with a numeric value of 91.4% was observed in the kinetin growth regulator for 24 hours , which compared to the control treatment was increased by 45.8%. Next higher percentages of germination were obtained for sand paper scarification with a numerical value of 74.7% and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours treatment with the value of 55.7% and the lowest was growth regulator kinetin treatment for 48 hours with percentage of germination was (17%) .From all results of this study, S.fruticosa and O. syriacum leaves extracts , essential oils and hydrosol antifungal activity against B. cinerea and F. oxysporum , can be used as a fungicide to reduce disease caused by fungi, and recommended to formulate fungicide with adding S.fruticosa and O. syriacum natural products .