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The Role and Expression Pattern of TET1 in Breast Cancer
(Al-quds university, 2019-12-18) Mahmoud Ali Mousa Al-Zahayqa; محمود علي موسى الزحايقة
Cancer is a genetic disease. Mutations and epigenetic alterations such as aberrant DNA methylation which results in altered gene expression is evident in all cancers studied, and is likely responsible for its major hallmarks. Methylation is maintained by DNA methyltransferases, however, methylation can be reversed by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Recently, functional demethylation was linked to hydroxylation of 5hmC by the TET family. TET1 is the most reduced member in a variety of human malignancies, suggesting a tumor suppressor function for this protein. In addition, published research showed controversial conclusions about TET1 function in breast cancer. Moreover, recent evidence showed that TET1 has more than one isoform. Thus, our hypothesis proposes the different TET1 isoforms may play different roles in breast cancer through differential expression pattern in different transformation contexts. In the present study, we tested the expression level and localization of TET1 enzyme in breast cancer samples using IHC, and the expression level using relative qRT-PCR in different breast cancer cell lines under different contexts. In addition, we tested the expression pattern of different TET1 isoforms using in vitro and in vivo cell transformation models. We also tested the effect of TET1 overexpression in MDA MB231 cells using lentivirus vector containing TET1 coding sequence on various cancer hallmarks. Our results demonstrate that TET1 has differential expression pattern in breast cancer embedded tissue samples compared to normal tissue. In addition, TET1 expression correlated with the differentiation level. From our hormone experiments, and in vitro as well as in vivo transformation studies, we clearly showed that different TET1 isoforms are differentially expressed under different physiological and transformation contexts, and different TET1 isoforms having different distribution pattern. Finally, we proved that TET1 full length is a tumor suppressor gene. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the role of TET1 in breast cancer is not straight forward one and this necessitates future studies to better characterize the TET1 function in breast cancer initiation and progression
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السياسات الحكومية وأثرها في تحقيق التنمية الزراعية المستدامة في المحافظات الجنوبية الفلسطينية
(AL-Quds University, 2022-08-13) جهاد نهاد جهاد الوحيدي; Jehad Nehad Jehad Alwahidi
هدفت هذه الدراسة للتعرف على السياسات الحكومية وأثرها في تحقيق التنمية الزراعية المستدامة في المحافظات الجنوبية الفلسطينية، ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة تم تصميم الدراسة باستخدام المنهج الكيفي في جمع البيانات وتمثل مجتمع الدراسة بالعاملين في منظمات المجتمع المدني الزراعية، ووزارة الزراعة، وسلطة المياه، والمهندسين الزراعيين، وقد تم اختيار عينة الدراسة بطريقة اختيارية بلغت (10) أفراد. وتوصلت الدراسة إلى أن السياسات الزراعية تساعد في تحقيق التنمية الزراعية المستدامة في المحافظات الجنوبية الفلسطينية لو تم تطبيقها بشكل كامل, وهذا ما لم نشهده على أرض الواقع، كما أن هذه السياسات تحظى بدرجة قليلة من الشرعية والتوافق، حيث يوجد ضعف في التنسيق بين المحافظات الشمالية والجنوبية فيما يتعلق بالسياسات الزراعية، كما أن هناك استخداماً جائراً للمبيدات، وللسياسات الزراعية دور أساسي في الحد من تأثير التغيرات المناخية على القطاع الزراعي. أما على صعيد الوضع المائي فإن الوضع سيء فهناك شح في مخزون المياه وعدم الاستفادة من مياه الأمطار كما يجب، بالإضافة للتلوث الكبير في مياه الشرب، كما إن استخدام السياسات المائية له أثر كبير على جودة الواقع المائي فهي تعمل على تحسين نسبة المياه الصالحة للشرب في الشبكات العامة للمياه، وضمان الوصول العادل للمياه لجميع المواطنين. أما على صعيد أثر السياسات الزراعية والمائية على العدالة الاجتماعية فإنها لا تحقق العدالة إلا في أمور قليلة مثل موضوع المياه المعالجة، أما من ناحية أسعار مدخلات الانتاج وأسعار المياه وقطاع الدواجن وحجم الاستثمار فإنها في الغالب لا تحقق العدالة، بل يستفيد فئة معينة ولا سيما كبار المزارعين على حساب فئات أخرى. أما على صعيد دور السياسات الزراعية في التمكين الاقتصادي فإن السياسات الزراعية والمائية تساعد العاملين في القطاع الزراعي على تحقيق دخل شهري مناسب وتلبي المتطلبات الحياتية المرتبطة بجوانب الانفاق المتنوعة، وتعزز الأفكار الاقتصادية نحو التوسع المستقبلي في الأعمال، وتعزز نظرة المجتمع للمرأة العاملة في الزراعة، وتعزز مكانة الفرد داخل الأسرة، وتسهم في تشغيل الأيدي العاملة. وأوصت الدراسة بضرورة أن تعطي الحكومة للقطاع الزراعي والمائي أولوية في موازناتها وتدخلاتها وسياساتها أسوة بباقي القطاعات الأخرى التي تهتم بها الحكومة، والعمل على تعويض المزارعين عن الأضرار التي تلحق بهم جراء الاعتداءات الاسرائيلية، والعمل على إنهاء الانقسام السياسي لما له من تداعيات طالت كافة القطاعات الاقتصادية، وتطوير قوانين حماية المستهلك وسن الأنظمة والتشريعات المتعلقة بحماية وتطوير المنتج من أجل رفع معدلات نسبة الاكتفاء الذاتي. Government Policies and their Impact on Achieving Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Southern Governorates of Palestine. Prepared by: Jehad N. Al-Wahidi Supervisor: Nabil abu Shamala The aim of this study is to identify government policies and their impact on achieving sustainable agricultural development in the Southern Governorates of Palestine, and to achieve the objectives of the study, the study was designed using the qualitative method of data collection and represents the study community with workers in agricultural civil society organizations, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Water Authority and agricultural engineers, and the sample of the study was selected in an optional manner amounting to (10) individuals. The study found that agricultural policies help to achieve sustainable agricultural development in the southern Palestinian governorates if they are fully implemented, and this is not seen on the ground, and these policies have a low degree of legitimacy and compatibility, where there is a weakness in coordination between the northern and southern provinces with regard to agricultural policies, and there is an unfair use of pesticides, and agricultural policies play a key role in reducing the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector. In terms of the water situation, the situation is bad, there is a scarcity of water stocks and the lack of proper access to rainwater, in addition to the significant pollution in drinking water, and the use of water policies has a significant impact on the quality of the water reality, as it works to improve the proportion of drinking water in public water networks, and to ensure equitable access to water for all citizens. In terms of the impact of agricultural and water policies on social justice, they do justice only in a few things, such as treated water, but in terms of the prices of inputs, water prices, the poultry sector and the volume of investment, they often do not do justice, but benefit a particular group, particularly large farmers, at the expense of other groups. In terms of the role of agricultural policies in economic empowerment, agricultural and water policies help agricultural workers to achieve a suitable monthly income and meet life requirements associated with diverse aspects of spending, promote economic ideas towards future business expansion, enhance society's perception of women working in agriculture, enhance the individual's place within the family and contribute to the employment of the labour force. The study recommended that the government should give priority to the agricultural and water sector in its budgets, interventions and policies, as in other sectors of concern to the government, work to compensate farmers for the damage caused to them by Israeli attacks, work to end the political divide because of its repercussions on all economic sectors, and develop consumer protection laws and enact regulations and legislation on the protection and development of the product in order to raise the rates of self-sufficiency.
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The role of Al-Quds University library in developing scientific research in the digital environment
(International Humanities Studies, 2022-09-01) Khalil Ahmad Mahmoud Jamous; Fouad Kurdi
The digital milieu and the age of information and modern technologies constitute a major challenge in the process of building and strengthening the capabilities of scholars and university students alike in production and scientific research. This is mainly due to the competition it imposes which bears a leadership character for the nature of the required scientific and intellectual production, and the entailed research performance. The study objective aims to identify the role of Al-Quds University library in developing scientific research in the digital environment. The study results showed the essential role that Al-Quds University library plays in supporting the academic process, developing scientific research, and popularizing the scientific publishing culture among university students. The authors recommend the need to keep pace with technological developments adding and purchasing new electronic information sources that meet the needs of its beneficiaries, and to provide budgets allocated for new subscriptions to international scientific journals of high rating.
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Exploring the gendered mental health experiences of adolescents in Gaza during the Covid-19 pandemic
(University of California Press, 2022-10-20) Bassam A. Abu Hamad; Nicola A. Jones; Sarah J. Baird; Shoroq H. Abuhamad; Riyad A. Diab; Erin M. Oakley; Agnieszka M. Małachowska
Adolescent mental health is increasingly recognized as a critical concern. Globally, suicide is among the top 5 causes of death for 15–19-year-olds (girls and boys). In the Middle East and North Africa, the prevalence of mental disorders (17.3% for girls and 16.8% for boys) is the second highest in the world. The Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated adolescents’ vulnerabilities, particularly through the impacts of lockdowns and school closures. This article explores adolescent experiences in Gaza, drawing on mixed-methods research carried out in late 2020 in refugee camps (29%) and urban settings (71%). The sample involved phone surveys with 505 adolescent girls and boys (12–19 years) and their caregivers, in-depth interviews with a subsample of 77 adolescents, and 9 key informant interviews with service providers. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-8, 9% of adolescents show signs of moderate-to-severe depression, and 19% reported moderate-to-severe anxiety, according to the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, with older adolescents (15–19 years) more vulnerable overall, and older girls more prone to self-harm ideation. However, older boys were significantly more likely to turn to substance use as a coping mechanism than older girls (18% vs. 6%). The drivers of these negative mental health impacts during the pandemic include deepening household economic vulnerabilities, heightened intra-family tensions (boys and men spending more time at home, increasing domestic work burdens on girls and women), and isolation from peer networks, especially for girls. We conclude by discussing implications for policy and programming, in line with Sustainable Development Goal 3, to promote mental health and well-being for all. Measures include investing in age- and gender-responsive interventions (including social protection) to support positive coping repertoires among adolescents, mitigating risks of substance abuse, investing in counseling services (online and in-person), and paying particular attention to the most disadvantaged adolescents, especially those out of formal education.