- ItemAssessment of Knowledge and Practices of Intensive Care Unit Staff of Radiation Protection during Portable Radiography in the City of Bethlehem and East Jerusalem, Palestine(Al-Quds University, 2023-05-13) Elias Issa Elias Juha; الياس عيسى الياس جحاThe application of ionizing radiation in portable radiography is a commonly employed technique within hospital settings, particularly when patients are deemed medically unfit to undergo transportation to the imaging department. Nonetheless, this circumstance might result in personnel being exposed to radiation. This study evaluated the physicians’ and nurses’ awareness level and practices of radiation protection principles and risks of portable radiography in the ICUs, CCUs, and NICUs at nine Bethlehem and East Jerusalem hospitals. For data collection, the researcher designed a prospective multiple-choice questionnaire study consisting of six parts; the first part contains six questions about socio-demographic factors and related work information; the second part deals with radiation protection knowledge and awareness of the intensive care staff; the third part deals with the practices and behavior during portable radiography; the fourth part assesses how often the intensive care staff uses radiation protection equipment; the fifth part studies the staff’s needs for further training and courses regarding radiation protection, and the last part deals with how often the intensive care staff rates their knowledge of radiation protection. The data were analyzed using the SPSS, version 21.0 software, T-test, Tukey test, and ANOVA test. Moreover, the means, standard deviations, and percentages were founded. The results show statistically significant differences between the level of knowledge (P=0.000) and the need for further training and courses regarding radiation protection (P=0.040) according to the years of practice variable. Also, statistically significant differences between the level of knowledge (P=0.000) and the need for further training and courses regarding radiation protection (P=0.045) according to the age variable. Furthermore, statistically significant differences between the level of knowledge (P=0.000) and their behavior and practice (P=0.018) according to the academic education variable, and statistically significant differences between the need for further training and courses (P=0.016) and the use of radiation protection equipment (P=0.029) according to the hospital sector variable. Moreover, the results indicate that there are no differences between the level of knowledge, the need for further training, the use of radiation protection equipment, and practices according to the gender and occupation variables, no differences between the use of radiation protection equipment and practices according to the age and years of practice variables, no differences between the need for further training and courses and the use of radiation protection equipment according to the academic education variable, and no differences between the level of knowledge and practices according to the hospital sector variable. Accordingly, our sample consists of 142 particpents, the overall knowledge and awareness level regarding radiation protection and risks was found to be 56% and rated as fair. Moreover, 56.3% of the participants were found to leave the intensive care department during portable radiography, and 48.6%, 62.7%, 68.3%, and 73.9% stated that they never use lead aprons, thyroid shields, lead gloves, and eyeglasses, respectively. While, 72.5% stated they never attended training or courses regarding radiation protection and 79.6% stated that continuous education officer does not provide them courses or refreshment lectures regarding radiation protection. Thus, their educational level and awareness need to be increased. Implementing courses, presentations, refreshment lectures, and periodic training for these personnel could effectively achieve this goal. Further research using a larger sample is recommended.
- ItemSynthesis and Study of Structure of Mixed-Ligand Mononuclear Coordination Compound of Copper, Nickel with 2,2'-Bipyrazine Ligand and Bidentate Nitrogenous Bases(Al-Quds University, 2023-05-20) Afnan Ribhee abdallah Mansour; افنان ربحي عبدالله منصورThe construction of varied networks architectures has been accomplished by incorporating a variety of transition metal coordination geometries in ligand design. Nitrogen-based heterocycles represent a worthy example of ligands that react with metal ions, providing a significant role in the improvement of inorganic complexes and future synthetic works. There are series of new synthesized complexes that contain either copper(II) or nickel(II) metal atom with homoleptic and/or mixed-ligand as 2,2'-bipyrazine, 2,2'-dipyridylamine, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine. The structures of the coordination compounds which are [Cu(amp)2(NO3)2] where amp: 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine), [(bpz)Cu(OH)(ClO4)-(H2O)]2.H2O, [Cu(bpz)3](ClO4)2.2CH3CN where bpz: 2,2'-bipyrazine, [Cu(dipyam)(H2O)-(pca)]ClO4 where dipyam: 2,2'-dipyridylamine, pca: 2-pyrazinecarboxylate, [Ni(dipyam)2-(bpz)](ClO4)2 and [Cu(bpz)2(H2O)](NO3)2 have been characterized based on several techniques as single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC), and characterized in detail of ligands by FTIR spectroscopy. The Cu(II) atom in a new [Cu(amp)2(NO3)2] compound has six coordinated with four nitrogen atoms of 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine (amp) ligands, and with two oxygen atoms of the coordinated nitrate molecule. A distorted octahedral coordination geometry around copper Cu(II) atom. The crystal is monoclinic, with space group P21/c and the unit cell dimensions a = 8.6377 (7), b = 8.9833 (6), c = 9.9958 (8)A°, β = 99.430°, Z = 2 and V = 765.14 (10) A°3. The crystal packing is stabilized by C-H…O and N-H…O hydrogen bonds between the pyridine and amino groups of amp ligand with the oxygen atoms of coordinated nitrate molecule. The chains also are reinforced by C-H…O interactions between the CH group of the amp ligand and oxygen atom of nitrate ligand of neighboring chain. Adjacent Cu chains overlapping with others by π–π stacking interactions connecting by two 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine ligand. The structure of the dimer [(bpz)Cu(OH)(ClO4)(H2O)]2.H2O contains two separate centrosymmetric μ-hydroxy copper(II) dimers, with two terminal 2,2'-bipyrazine ligands, two molecules of water and two perchlorate groups and one water molecule as solvent molecule. The crystal are triclinic, with space group P-1 and the unit cell dimensions are a = 8.0391 (10), b = 8.1718 (9), c = 10.5662 (14)A°, α = 77.973 (5), β = 80.465 (6), γ = 84.271 (5)°, Z = 1 and V = 667.98 (14)A°3. The X-ray study shows that a distorted elongated tetragonal octahedral geometry around each copper(II) atom, where oxygen atoms of water and perchlorate particles located in the axial positions, while the two nitrogen atoms of 2,2'-bipyrazine ligand and two oxygen of the bridging hydroxo groups located in equatorial sites. The hydrogen bond are formed according to the nitrogens of pyrazine ligands, oxygen of perchlorate groups, hydroxide groups of coordinated water and crystallization water molecules. The X-ray study of the new compound [Cu(bpz)3](ClO4)2.2CH3CN conclude to that Cu(II) center has distorted octahedral geometry and the crystal is monoclinic, with space group P21/c and the unit cell dimensions a = 11.2508(6), b = 22.1602(12), c = 13.6980(8)A°, A = 90°, b = 90.302(5)°, g = 90°, Z = 4 and V = 3415.1(3) A°3. The crystal packing reveals different kinds of hydrogen bonds including, between acetonitrile and nitrogen atom of bpz ligands, oxygen atoms of perchlorate molecules, and hydrogen atom of bpz ligands and between hydrogen atom of acetonitrile and oxygen atom of perchlorate. Also, a Van Deer Waal interaction formed between the C-H of bpz with oxygen atom of ClO4. The adjacent sheets are interact through the π--π interaction. The in situ formed a new chelate [Cu(dipyam)(H2O)(pca)]ClO4 studied by X-ray and showed that Cu(II) atom has five coordinated by two nitrogen atoms of 2,2'-dipyridylamine, one nitrogen and one oxygen of 2-pyrazinecarboxylate (pca) ligand, one oxygen atom of coordinated water. The perchlorate molecule is a counter ion, A distorted square pyramid geometry around Cu(II) ion. The crystal is triclinic, with space group P-1 and the unit cell dimensions are a = 7.8943 (10), b = 9.9511 (14), c = 13.412 (2) A°, α = 98.908 (9), β = 106.079(8)°, γ = 112.715 (7)°, Z = 2 and V = 892.2 (2)A°3. The perchlorate anions bind the complex cations to produce a chain structure through O—H…O close contacts and C—H…O hydrogen bonds. The in situ forming of new ligand (pca) will encourage scientists to hypothesize a new methodology for C-C / C-N bond cleavage.The new divalent nickel chelate [Ni(dipyam)2(bpz)](ClO4)2, the X-ray structural analysis show that the Ni(II) atom is a hexacoordinated by two nitrogen atoms of 2,2'-bipyrazine ligand, and four nitrogen atoms of two 2,2'-dipyridylamine ligands. The two perchlorate ion is a counter ion. The geometry of the compound is a distorted octahedral because of existing the three chelate rings binds with Ni(II) metal, including two (dipyam), one 2,2'-bipyrazine ligands, each 2,2'-dipyridylamine located at equatorial plane and at axial position, and 2,2'-bipyrazine ligands located at equatorial positions. The crystal structure is monoclinic, with space group C2/c the unit cell dimensions are a = 16.919 (3), b = 11.2635 (18), c = 17.588 (4)A°, β = 113.037 (4)°, Z = 4 and V= 3084.4 (10)A°3.The perchlorate anions link the complex cations to form a chain structure through N—H…O close contacts and C—H…O hydrogen bonds, beside to 2,2'-bipyrazine ligand binds through C—H•••N. The π•••π and/or C-H•••π interactions that established by aromatic rings of pyridyl and pyrazinyl groups from adjacent sheet.The new [Cu(bpz)2(H2O)](NO3)2 complex investigated by X-ray analysis to find that Cu(II) atom is five coordinated with four nitrogen atoms of 2,2'-bipyrazine ligands, and with one oxygen atom of the water molecule. The two nitrate molecules as counter ion. A distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry around copper Cu(II) atom. The crystal is Monoclinic, with space group C2/c and the unit cell dimensions a = 15.886 (6), b = 7.208 (4), c = 18.016 (7)A°,β = 107.07 (4), Z = 4 and V = 1972.2 (17)A°3.The crystal packing is stabilized by hydrogen bond that formed according to nitrate anions which is acting as bridges to bond with the cations of the complex via O—H…N and O—H…O hydrogen bonds and C—H…O closed contacts. These complexes may be able to play role in different fields either chemical, biological or electrical studies due to their ligands have expanded using in multi applications, for example, using in development of selective catalysis, preparation of supramolecular compounds, designing of pharmaceutical molecules that used in drug discovery studies, beside to their utilizing in electro-optic materials, semiconductor materials and magnetic materials.
- ItemThe Efficiency of FLAIR-Weighted BLADE in image Quality Parameter Correction for Moved Patient(Al-Quds University, 2023-03-11) maram mohammad motee ghazawna; مرام محمد مطيع غزاونةMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical tool that can provide detailed information about the inner structure of a person's body. The use of the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in imaging the brain is very useful, as it can help identify subtle changes in the brain's structure and function. Due to the sensitivity of MRI to artifacts, it is not always possible to achieve high-quality imaging. The presence of motion artifacts can affect the overall diagnostic value. In this study dipole filling for k-space (BLADE) was implemented for 46 different images with different motion types including right rotation, left rotation, right bending, left bending, flexion, extension, and combination. In this work, we aimed to measure signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and percentage of signal ghosting (PSG). RADIANT DICOM viewer was used to calculate signal intensity (SI) and its standard deviation (SD), the SD is used as the noise index. ImageQC was used to calculate PSG while these measurements are plotted in Microsoft Excel. In this research, we used a control group of 46 patients who have standard images which use the cartesian filling for k-space for comparing the measurements with standard FLAIR sequence. Results showed using BLADE lead to a significant improvement in SNR, CNR, and ghosting in almost all types of motion while failing to correct ghosting from severe patient motion. The mean value of SNR was 1.08 for the dipole filling (BLADE) sequence and significantly reduced to 0.92 for the routine sequence (p<0.05). While the mean CNR was 0.75 for dipole filling and significantly reduced to 0.49 for routine sequence (p<0.05). Finally, the mean PSG for dipole filling was 0.75 and significantly reduced to 0.18 for routine sequence (p<0.05). In conclusion, the dipole filling sequence enhances SNR, and CNR due to flow and eye motion. Although BLADE reduced ghosting artifacts in most types of motion, BLADE was unable to eliminate ghosting appearance from the severe patient motion. التصوير بالرنين المغناطيسي (MRI) يوفر معلومات مفصلة حول التشريح الداخلي لجسم المريض, ويعد استخدام بروتوكول تثبيط اشارة السوائل (FLAIR) ذو أهمية في تصوير الدماغ حيث يساعد على التمييز بين السوائل وامراض الدماغ, ومع الأسف ليس من الممكن الحصول على صورة تشخيصية في جميع الحالات نظرا لحساسية التصوير بالرنين المغناطيسي لحركة المريض هذه الحركة تؤثر على القيمة التشخيصية للصورة, في هذه الدراسة نسعى لدراسة أثر الملء القطبي للبيانات ل 46 صورة تم تصويرها ب حركات مختلفة بحيث تشمل هذه الحركات دوران لليمين, دوران لليسار, انحناء لليمين, انحناء لليسار, انحناء للأمام, وانحناء للخلف. قمنا في هذه الدراسة بحساب نسبة التباين, نسبة الإشارة الى التشويش, ونسبة الإشارة الوهمية. حيث تم استخدام برنامج RADIANT DICOM لقياس كثافة الإشارة والانحراف المعياري للإشارة, ويستخدم الانحراف المعياري كمؤشر على كمية التشويش. استخدمنا أيضا في هذه الدراسة برنامج imageQC لحساب نسبة الإشارة الوهمية. تم تسجيل النتائج على برنامج مايكروسوفت اكسل وتمت مقارنتها ب 46 صورة تم اجرائها بالبروتوكول المعياري الذي يستخدم الملء الخطي للبيانات, أظهرت النتائج تحسنا في نسبة الإشارة الى التشويش ونسبة التباين, بالإضافة الى حل مشكلة الإشارة الوهمية الناتجة عن تدفق السائل النخاعي وحركة رموش العين بينما لم يتم تصحيح الإشارة الوهمية الناتجة عن الحركات المتكررة للمريض, كان متوسط نسبة الإشارة الى التشويش في الصور التي تم اجرائها باستخدام الملء القطبي 1.08 بينما صور الملء الخطي 0.92 حيث يعتبر فرق ذو دلالة إحصائية عند قيمة احتمالية اقل من 5%, وبالنسبة لنسبة التباين لصور الملء القطبي 0.75 وانخفض الى 0.49 في صور الملء الخطي ويعتبر هذا فرق ذو دلالة إحصائية عند قيمة احتمالية اقل من 5%. ختاما نسبة الإشارة الوهمية 0.75 في صور الملء القطبي وانخفض الى 0.18 في صور الملء الخطي حيث يعتبر هذا فرق ذو دلالة إحصائية عند قيمة احتمالية اقل من 5%. ونستنتج ان الملء القطبي يعزز نسبة التباين ونسبة الإشارة الى التشويش ويحل مشكلة الإشارة الوهمية الناتجة عن تدفق السائل النخاعي وحركة العين بينما يفشل في حل مشكلة الحركات المتكرة.
- ItemEffect of magnetic field strength and sequence type on susceptibility artefacts: a comparative study utilizing low and high field strength magnetic resonance imaging scanners(Al-Quds University, 2023-12-11) Alaa Mahmoud Ali Qalalweh; علاء محمود علي قلالوةMany patients need to implant metal screws in several areas in their bodies as treatment procedures, and these metal implants cause an artefact around them in the magnetic resonance image, so the area around the metal implants can't be better evaluated, and this artefact increases whenever the magnetic field increased, for example, using the device with the magnetic field 1.5 T causes a greater susceptibility artefact than using a device with 0.4 T magnetic field. This type of artefact leads to repeat the MR image again using low field MR devices, this will increase the costs of diagnosis, increase the patient's exhaustion to obtain sufficient diagnosis, in addition to consuming more time to complete the diagnosis process. in this study, the measurements of the artefact around the titanium screws in low and high MR field was compared with the measurements of the screws in X-ray images. in addition to other sample was taken from calf spine that purchased from meat store that have been implanted with other 3 titanium screws, then underwent low and high field MR imaging in 3 repeats to get more accurate measurements, this artefact measurement around the screws in the calf spine was compared with the diameter of the same screws measurements on X-ray images. The result of this study was clarify that the use of low field MR device is better than the high field in case of presence of titanium screws in vertebral body, in addition to use titanium rather than other metallic materials that produce high susceptibility artefact in MR image, and this will be shown in the charts in this study. الكثير من المرضى يضطرون الى زرع براغي معدنية في عدة مناطق في اجسامهم كإجراءات علاجية، وهذه الزرعات المعدنية تسبب حولها تشويشا في صورة الرنين المغناطيسي، فتصبح المنطقة التي تحيط بالزرعات المعدنية غير قابلة للتشخيص، ويزيد هذا الخلل كلما ارتفع المجال المغناطيسي المستخدم، فمثلا استخدام الجهاز ذو قوة المجال المغناطيسي 1.5 تسلا يتسبب في خلل أكبر من استخدام جهاز بقوة 0.4 تسلا، هذا الخلل الناتج في الصورة يتسبب أحيانا بإعادة تصوير المريض على الجهاز منخفض المجال، ويزيد من تكاليف التشخيص، بالإضافة الى انه يزيد من معاناة المريض للحصول على تشخيص كاف، بالإضافة الى استهلاك المزيد من الوقت لإكمال عملية التشخيص. في هذه الدراسة يتم قياس الخلل الذي تسببه براغي التيتانيوم حولها عند التصوير باستخدام جهاز الرنين المغناطيسي منخفض المجال والجهاز عالي المجال، هذه القياسات تؤخذ لنفس البراغي بعد تصويرها في كلا المجالين، ثم يتم قياسها بالمليميتر، ومقارنتها مع القياسات لنفس البراغي على صور الاشعة السينية. بالإضافة الى غرس 3 براغي في عمود فقري لعجل تم شرائه من متاجر اللحوم، هذه البراغي جميعا تم تصويرها باستخدام المجالين أيضا، وتم إعادة تصوير هذه البراغي 3 مرات لزيادة دقة النتائج، وتم عمل القياسات لجميع هذه البراغي ومقارنة نتائجها بعضها مع بعض، ومقارنتها مع القياسات التي كتبت على البراغي بواسطة الشركة المصنعة. تبين في هذه الدراسة ان الخلل الناتج في صور الرنين المغناطيسي باستخدام الجهاز ذو المجال المرتفع أكبر بكثير من الخلل الناتج من استخدام الجهاز ذو المجال المنخفض، بالإضافة الى ان استخدام مواد مثل التيتانيوم التي تعتبر اقل تأثيرا في قابلية التمغنط يقلل من التشوه الموجود في صورة الرنين، وتبين المنحنيات في فصل نتائج الدراسة هذه الفروقات بشكل مفصل.
- ItemInfluence of Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm on Image Quality of Ultra Low-Dose CT Protocol of the Lumber Spine(Al-quds University, 2022-12-11) Israa Jamal Mostafa Odeh; اسراء جمال مصطفى عودةQuantitative computed tomography (QCT) or QCT Densitometry is a new examination in computed tomography (CT) used to diagnose bone mineral density. QCT scan is a low-dose protocol with an effective dose value of 1 millisievert (mSv)The dose reduction technique leads to a significant reduction in effective dose at the expense of image quality as it uses the traditional filtered back projection (FBP) method. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm on image quality and measure the effective dose from low-dose QCT protocol of the lumbar spine CT. This study consisted of 33 patients ( all patients files in the selected period) from both genders aged who were clinically suspected of lower back pain and Osteoporosis during the period from 7th July 2021 to the date of ethical approval. Different types of algorithms, FBP, Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE), and iterative beam hardening correction (iBHC) were applied. The image quality criteria including CT number, noise, and signal were analyzed by three regions of interest (ROIs). The three RIOs represent the following anatomy (intervertebral disc, right psoas muscle, and dural sac) respectively, from region 1 – region 3. In addition, for qualitative analysis, the images reconstructed by SAFIRE level 5 (s5) were compared with the grading system by European standards for CT for the evaluation of disc herniation and lumber spine. The noticed results for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-nose ratio (CNR), showed optimization for images when reconstructed by SAFIRE level 5, with mean SNR of 2.9 which is significantly higher than other reconstruction algorithms (p<0.05). Also, the mean CNR was 2.9 which is significantly higher than other reconstruction techniques (p<0.05). The mean effective dose for the whole population was 1.9 mSv. The SAFIRE algorithm was able to reduce the noise levels at all RIO. The quality of the images according to the grading system by European standards for CT for the evaluation of disc herniation and lumber spine.was similar among the radiologists with good agreement. There is no relationship between body mass index (BMI) and SNR, CNR, and effective dose. In conclusion the use of QCT and using SAFIRE level 5 resulted in higher SNR, CNR, and fewer noise values compared to classic FBP and other levels of SAFIRE. Also, QCT using SAFIRE level 5 revealed equivalent image quality compared to standard protocols of the lumbar spine CT.