Medical Imaging Technology


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 20
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    An Advanced Approach to Reconstruct CT Images from limited-angle projections, reducing radiation dose and tube load.
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-12-12) Doaa Housni Ali Bani Odeh; دعاء حسني علي بني عودة
    Concerns regarding ionizing radiation doses to individuals and patients have arisen as a result of the remarkable advancements in computed tomography (CT) technology and applications over the last ten years, so Computed tomography (CT) scanners and CT exams have increased continuously. Researchers aim to minimize ionizing radiation dose via introducing new CT protocols and providing diagnostic CT images with lower radiation doses to patient. Nevertheless, these investigations have challenges: reducing the radiation dose results in decreased image quality, which might occasionally be non-diagnostic. In This study, the researcher aims to investigate the possibility of forming a CT brain image from a limited number of projections at a projection angle of less than 180 degrees While maintaining image quality based on the ALARA principle and decreasing radiation dose. then determine if the images match the quality criteria of Brain CT. This effort spanned from January 2023 to September 2023. The process of reconstructing CT scan images from limited angle projections is critical and requires strict adherence to the ALARA principle. This principle is designed to minimize radiation exposure while maintaining image quality. Our study utilized filter back-projection (FBP) and algebraic iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms to reconstruct brain CT images from 500 projection lines with a 100 x 100 and 200 x 200 matrix size. In addition to researching the effect of the reconstruction angle on image quality, two degrees were taken at an angle of 90 and 45 degrees. The images were evaluated for image quality criteria by 10 expert medical imaging technicians and 2 radiologists and specific evaluations were given. Then, a simple descriptive statistical analysis was conducted, including calculating percentages for expert medical imaging technicians and radiologists evaluations and p-values. By combining the results of a MATLAB 2021 functions with the insights of a radiologist, we can produce high-quality images that decrease radiation dose and tube load. Our findings reveal that the algebraic method is superior to the filter back-projection in preserving image quality when utilizing limited-angle projections. In addition to the Statistical t-test (P<.001), which confirms the existence of statistical differences between the two algorithms. With a percentage of 41%, or a moderate scale, the IR algorithm matches quality requirements better. Conversely, the FBP exhibits a proportion of < 25%, signifying a weak scale. Based on the percentages of evaluation, we can confirm that the size of the Matrix 200 x 200 is superior to the size of the Matrix 100 x 100, as it formed a percentage of 36.25%, which is equivalent to a moderate scale. In addition, the reconstruction angle of 90 provides better quality and its percentage was 41.75%, equivalent to a moderate scale. So the IR algorithm at 90 degree with 500 projection only provides images that match the quality criteria for brain CT. while FBP fails to provide any meaningful insights when working with angles of 45 and 90 degrees.
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    Signal Quantification of Intravenous Contrast Media Enhancement From Biphase Liver CT Scan Procedures
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-07-22) Rawa Khaled Abed Almajeed Alqam; رواء خالد عبدالمجيد علقم
    Computed Tomography (CT) is a diagnostic imaging technique that produces comprehensive images of skeletons, arteries, veins, tissues of the body, and organs inside the body. This imaging program MSc thesis concentrated on contrast agent (CA) assessed to the region of interest (ROI) in CT image. It was compared with automated bolus monitoring with a fixed time delay technique of contrast enhancement in multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) during abdominal and pelvic CT treatments using an intravenous (IV) CA. During this investigation, all variables impacting contrast enhancement were collected, including patient characteristics such as body weight, cardiac output, and contrast injection settings. The sample for this study was split into two groups: 100 retrospective and 43 prospective patients. Hounsfield Unit was measured before administering the CA, and it was also measured 30 seconds and 70 seconds after administering the CA in the first group. This group contained 50 patients from a government hospital and another 50 patients from an Non-Governmental hospital. The second group collected patient information, which included the patient's age, weight, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and Creatinine level. HU values were measured before and after the CA was administered at a time estimated by the radiographic technologist based on the HU values reaching 120. The HU values in both groups were analyzed to determine the differences between both HU measurements and to develop an equation for predicting imaging time when employing the automated bolus monitoring technique. The study's findings revealed that there is no difference in age between males and females in all sample patients, and the predictors of the Bolus Time Equation dealt with patient weight, heart rate, Creatinine level, and systolic blood pressure, where the percentage of dependence on these variables was up to 34.9%, and the effect of each variable in the equation had a value of up to 59.1%. The ANOVA test demonstrated that this equation can be relied upon, as the result was p = 0.002. When the equation was used, the findings revealed no discrepancies between the Bolus Time value gathered in the study and the Bolus Time utilizing the equation, with a p-value of (0.992 > 0.05). The HU rate differed significantly between the first group and the second group, where the p-value was 0.00. The research indicated that using bolus monitoring resulted in a wide range of enhancements compared to when fixed-time was used, and the bolus tracking produced better improvement results than fixed-time
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    A Retrospective Study to Measure the Justification for CT Scans of the Abdomen and pelvis in Palestinian Public Hospitals
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-11-22) Ashraf Mohammad Harb Najajrah; أشرف محمد حرب نجاجره
    Computed axial tomography it is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of computer technologies and X-ray radiation to produce axial images (often called slices) of the organs of human body. CT scan is a powerful device and highly flexible diagnostic tool enable of making radical changes to the patient clinical management. The most appropriate use of CT scan depends on a lot of factors which must be considered every time a CT scan is justified. CT scan as a diagnostic modality, it delivers higher radiation doses compared to other imaging modalities, if the patient effective dose increase the risk of cancer increase. The researcher aims from this retrospective study to determine whether the abdomen and pelvis CT scan examination in the Palestinian public hospitals were justified or not. In this retrospective study, the sample size 892 referrals were included,458 female and 434 male from seven public hospitals in Palestine. Three radiologists participated in this study. Two of them separately participated to judge if the examination justified or unjustified according to five groups criteria’s of justification, and the role of third participated radiologist only to reach the consensus if there are any discrepancies between the main two separate radiologists. Chi square test, excel software and SPSS used for any analysis. There is significant difference between justified and unjustified CT examinations in public hospitals in Palestine with p value 0.00. 58.6% of the referrals were unjustified. Also, there is significant difference in the number of justified and unjustified between with contrast and without contrast with p value 0.02. Otherwise, the rest of parameters showed no significant difference. In conclusion, our present study showed high number of unjustified examinations in the Palestinian public hospitals. And the number of pediatric patients (8%) in acceptable range in compared to the number of adults patients (92%) included in the study. There is significant difference in the number of justified and unjustified between CT examinations with contrast and without contrast with p value 0.02. It’s important to introduce Palestinian indications or guidelines for CT scans attach it to the HIS. As well as increase the awareness of patient’s and his/ hers family about the radiation risks on the other hand, introduce continuous training and learning about the CT justification and risks for medical team especially physicians who responsible for referring patients to CT scan.
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    Assessment of Knowledge and Practices of Intensive Care Unit Staff of Radiation Protection during Portable Radiography in the City of Bethlehem and East Jerusalem, Palestine
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-05-13) Elias Issa Elias Juha; الياس عيسى الياس جحا
    The application of ionizing radiation in portable radiography is a commonly employed technique within hospital settings, particularly when patients are deemed medically unfit to undergo transportation to the imaging department. Nonetheless, this circumstance might result in personnel being exposed to radiation. This study evaluated the physicians’ and nurses’ awareness level and practices of radiation protection principles and risks of portable radiography in the ICUs, CCUs, and NICUs at nine Bethlehem and East Jerusalem hospitals. For data collection, the researcher designed a prospective multiple-choice questionnaire study consisting of six parts; the first part contains six questions about socio-demographic factors and related work information; the second part deals with radiation protection knowledge and awareness of the intensive care staff; the third part deals with the practices and behavior during portable radiography; the fourth part assesses how often the intensive care staff uses radiation protection equipment; the fifth part studies the staff’s needs for further training and courses regarding radiation protection, and the last part deals with how often the intensive care staff rates their knowledge of radiation protection. The data were analyzed using the SPSS, version 21.0 software, T-test, Tukey test, and ANOVA test. Moreover, the means, standard deviations, and percentages were founded. The results show statistically significant differences between the level of knowledge (P=0.000) and the need for further training and courses regarding radiation protection (P=0.040) according to the years of practice variable. Also, statistically significant differences between the level of knowledge (P=0.000) and the need for further training and courses regarding radiation protection (P=0.045) according to the age variable. Furthermore, statistically significant differences between the level of knowledge (P=0.000) and their behavior and practice (P=0.018) according to the academic education variable, and statistically significant differences between the need for further training and courses (P=0.016) and the use of radiation protection equipment (P=0.029) according to the hospital sector variable. Moreover, the results indicate that there are no differences between the level of knowledge, the need for further training, the use of radiation protection equipment, and practices according to the gender and occupation variables, no differences between the use of radiation protection equipment and practices according to the age and years of practice variables, no differences between the need for further training and courses and the use of radiation protection equipment according to the academic education variable, and no differences between the level of knowledge and practices according to the hospital sector variable. Accordingly, our sample consists of 142 particpents, the overall knowledge and awareness level regarding radiation protection and risks was found to be 56% and rated as fair. Moreover, 56.3% of the participants were found to leave the intensive care department during portable radiography, and 48.6%, 62.7%, 68.3%, and 73.9% stated that they never use lead aprons, thyroid shields, lead gloves, and eyeglasses, respectively. While, 72.5% stated they never attended training or courses regarding radiation protection and 79.6% stated that continuous education officer does not provide them courses or refreshment lectures regarding radiation protection. Thus, their educational level and awareness need to be increased. Implementing courses, presentations, refreshment lectures, and periodic training for these personnel could effectively achieve this goal. Further research using a larger sample is recommended.
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    Synthesis and Study of Structure of Mixed-Ligand Mononuclear Coordination Compound of Copper, Nickel with 2,2'-Bipyrazine Ligand and Bidentate Nitrogenous Bases
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-05-20) Afnan Ribhee abdallah Mansour; افنان ربحي عبدالله منصور
    The construction of varied networks architectures has been accomplished by incorporating a variety of transition metal coordination geometries in ligand design. Nitrogen-based heterocycles represent a worthy example of ligands that react with metal ions, providing a significant role in the improvement of inorganic complexes and future synthetic works. There are series of new synthesized complexes that contain either copper(II) or nickel(II) metal atom with homoleptic and/or mixed-ligand as 2,2'-bipyrazine, 2,2'-dipyridylamine, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine. The structures of the coordination compounds which are [Cu(amp)2(NO3)2] where amp: 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine), [(bpz)Cu(OH)(ClO4)-(H2O)]2.H2O, [Cu(bpz)3](ClO4)2.2CH3CN where bpz: 2,2'-bipyrazine, [Cu(dipyam)(H2O)-(pca)]ClO4 where dipyam: 2,2'-dipyridylamine, pca: 2-pyrazinecarboxylate, [Ni(dipyam)2-(bpz)](ClO4)2 and [Cu(bpz)2(H2O)](NO3)2 have been characterized based on several techniques as single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC), and characterized in detail of ligands by FTIR spectroscopy. The Cu(II) atom in a new [Cu(amp)2(NO3)2] compound has six coordinated with four nitrogen atoms of 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine (amp) ligands, and with two oxygen atoms of the coordinated nitrate molecule. A distorted octahedral coordination geometry around copper Cu(II) atom. The crystal is monoclinic, with space group P21/c and the unit cell dimensions a = 8.6377 (7), b = 8.9833 (6), c = 9.9958 (8)A°, β = 99.430°, Z = 2 and V = 765.14 (10) A°3. The crystal packing is stabilized by C-H…O and N-H…O hydrogen bonds between the pyridine and amino groups of amp ligand with the oxygen atoms of coordinated nitrate molecule. The chains also are reinforced by C-H…O interactions between the CH group of the amp ligand and oxygen atom of nitrate ligand of neighboring chain. Adjacent Cu chains overlapping with others by π–π stacking interactions connecting by two 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine ligand. The structure of the dimer [(bpz)Cu(OH)(ClO4)(H2O)]2.H2O contains two separate centrosymmetric μ-hydroxy copper(II) dimers, with two terminal 2,2'-bipyrazine ligands, two molecules of water and two perchlorate groups and one water molecule as solvent molecule. The crystal are triclinic, with space group P-1 and the unit cell dimensions are a = 8.0391 (10), b = 8.1718 (9), c = 10.5662 (14)A°, α = 77.973 (5), β = 80.465 (6), γ = 84.271 (5)°, Z = 1 and V = 667.98 (14)A°3. The X-ray study shows that a distorted elongated tetragonal octahedral geometry around each copper(II) atom, where oxygen atoms of water and perchlorate particles located in the axial positions, while the two nitrogen atoms of 2,2'-bipyrazine ligand and two oxygen of the bridging hydroxo groups located in equatorial sites. The hydrogen bond are formed according to the nitrogens of pyrazine ligands, oxygen of perchlorate groups, hydroxide groups of coordinated water and crystallization water molecules. The X-ray study of the new compound [Cu(bpz)3](ClO4)2.2CH3CN conclude to that Cu(II) center has distorted octahedral geometry and the crystal is monoclinic, with space group P21/c and the unit cell dimensions a = 11.2508(6), b = 22.1602(12), c = 13.6980(8)A°, A = 90°, b = 90.302(5)°, g = 90°, Z = 4 and V = 3415.1(3) A°3. The crystal packing reveals different kinds of hydrogen bonds including, between acetonitrile and nitrogen atom of bpz ligands, oxygen atoms of perchlorate molecules, and hydrogen atom of bpz ligands and between hydrogen atom of acetonitrile and oxygen atom of perchlorate. Also, a Van Deer Waal interaction formed between the C-H of bpz with oxygen atom of ClO4. The adjacent sheets are interact through the π--π interaction. The in situ formed a new chelate [Cu(dipyam)(H2O)(pca)]ClO4 studied by X-ray and showed that Cu(II) atom has five coordinated by two nitrogen atoms of 2,2'-dipyridylamine, one nitrogen and one oxygen of 2-pyrazinecarboxylate (pca) ligand, one oxygen atom of coordinated water. The perchlorate molecule is a counter ion, A distorted square pyramid geometry around Cu(II) ion. The crystal is triclinic, with space group P-1 and the unit cell dimensions are a = 7.8943 (10), b = 9.9511 (14), c = 13.412 (2) A°, α = 98.908 (9), β = 106.079(8)°, γ = 112.715 (7)°, Z = 2 and V = 892.2 (2)A°3. The perchlorate anions bind the complex cations to produce a chain structure through O—H…O close contacts and C—H…O hydrogen bonds. The in situ forming of new ligand (pca) will encourage scientists to hypothesize a new methodology for C-C / C-N bond cleavage.The new divalent nickel chelate [Ni(dipyam)2(bpz)](ClO4)2, the X-ray structural analysis show that the Ni(II) atom is a hexacoordinated by two nitrogen atoms of 2,2'-bipyrazine ligand, and four nitrogen atoms of two 2,2'-dipyridylamine ligands. The two perchlorate ion is a counter ion. The geometry of the compound is a distorted octahedral because of existing the three chelate rings binds with Ni(II) metal, including two (dipyam), one 2,2'-bipyrazine ligands, each 2,2'-dipyridylamine located at equatorial plane and at axial position, and 2,2'-bipyrazine ligands located at equatorial positions. The crystal structure is monoclinic, with space group C2/c the unit cell dimensions are a = 16.919 (3), b = 11.2635 (18), c = 17.588 (4)A°, β = 113.037 (4)°, Z = 4 and V= 3084.4 (10)A°3.The perchlorate anions link the complex cations to form a chain structure through N—H…O close contacts and C—H…O hydrogen bonds, beside to 2,2'-bipyrazine ligand binds through C—H•••N. The π•••π and/or C-H•••π interactions that established by aromatic rings of pyridyl and pyrazinyl groups from adjacent sheet.The new [Cu(bpz)2(H2O)](NO3)2 complex investigated by X-ray analysis to find that Cu(II) atom is five coordinated with four nitrogen atoms of 2,2'-bipyrazine ligands, and with one oxygen atom of the water molecule. The two nitrate molecules as counter ion. A distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry around copper Cu(II) atom. The crystal is Monoclinic, with space group C2/c and the unit cell dimensions a = 15.886 (6), b = 7.208 (4), c = 18.016 (7)A°,β = 107.07 (4), Z = 4 and V = 1972.2 (17)A°3.The crystal packing is stabilized by hydrogen bond that formed according to nitrate anions which is acting as bridges to bond with the cations of the complex via O—H…N and O—H…O hydrogen bonds and C—H…O closed contacts. These complexes may be able to play role in different fields either chemical, biological or electrical studies due to their ligands have expanded using in multi applications, for example, using in development of selective catalysis, preparation of supramolecular compounds, designing of pharmaceutical molecules that used in drug discovery studies, beside to their utilizing in electro-optic materials, semiconductor materials and magnetic materials.