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- ItemBehavioral and Social Determinants of Early Childhood Caries among Palestinian Preschoolers in Jerusalem area: A Cross-sectional Study(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 0011-05-22) Saif Amer; Elham KateebBackground: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a public health problem that is influenced by biological, behavioural, psychosocial, and economic determinants predisposed by children’s environment.
- ItemPrevalence and Severity of Gingivitis in High School Students in Gaza Strip(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Mehjez, AshrafIn order to create a healthy society, we have to take care of the cornerstone of the health community which is mainly formed by high school students. One of the most prevalent oral diseases that begins to develop early in childhood are periodontal diseases. As a consequence of these diseases, if not treated on time, the destructive processes progress in both hard and soft tissues eventually leading to loss of teeth, Gingivitis is one of these diseases. It involves the inflammation of only the gingiva and is reversible when appropriate treatment measures are used. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and severity of gingivitis in high school students in Gaza Strip in Palestine. The study design used was cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical. The population used as participants in the study was high school students in Gaza Strip governorates. Three hundred and fifty high school students aged between 14 to 18 years were recruited in this study. For periodontal examination, William’s graduated periodontal will be used as well as, Plaque Index (PI) to assess dental plaque, and Gingival Index (GI) to assess gingival inflammation. Also, a questionnaire will be used to collect the socio-demographic and health conditions of the students. The data of the study will be entered and analyzed by SPSS program and presented as frequency tables, and charts. The relationship between gingivitis and other independent socio-demographic factors will be examined by significance statistical tests, such as t- tests, ANOVA, and chi-square test.
- ItemMarginal and Internal Crown Fit Evaluation of CAD/CAM versus Press-Laboratory Lithium Disilicate Crown(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Musleh, AymanThis study aims to evaluate the marginal gap and internal adaptation of lithium disilicate crowns fabricated by conventional press-dental laboratory and CAD/CAM systems. The size of the marginal and internal gaps of crowns is fabricated with the two techniques in the current study; the research will be performed in an effort to improve clinical outcomes. Tooth #14 was prepared per standard specification to receive the lithium disilicate crowns. Sixty Type IV gypsum dies tooth #14 were duplicated and divided into three groups (n=30). The lithium disilicate CAD/CAM system (Group 1) was fabricated with the E4D CAD/CAM system according to manufacturer's instructions. For press-dental laboratory made crowns, impressions were taken on the region area with two-step impression techniques with light and putty consistency VPS. Impressions were sent to two independent dental laboratories (Groups 2 and 3) for fabricating the monolithic press lithium disilicate crown. Tooth #14 was optically scanned and lithium disilicate blocks were used to fabricate crowns using CAD/CAM technique. Polyvinyl siloxane impressions of the prepared teeth were made and monolithic pressed lithium disilicate crowns were fabricated. The marginal gap was measured using optical microscope at 160× magnification (Keyence VHX-5000, Japan) and internal fit of the crowns was assessed by the silicone replica technique. Four sections of each replica were obtained, and each section was evaluated at four points: marginal gap (MG), axial wall (AW), axio-occlusal edge (AO) and Centro-occlusal wall (CO), using an image analyzing software. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and chi-squared test. Study design: Experimental. Setting of study: University of Palestine and Laser Specialized center For Esthetic Dentistry.
- ItemStatus of Healthcare for b-Thalassemia Patients in the West Bank(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Dwaik, Reem; Abu-Mohor, Tamara; Abdeen, Shatha; Warasneh, Salam; Imad, Isra'Evaluation of thalassemia patients can be demanding because of the plentiful potential disease sequences and absence of available therapies other than transfusion and bone marrow (BM) transplantation, both of which have related morbidities and charges. This study aims to evaluate the hematological, biochemical, and the endocrine profiles of β-thalassemia patients and their correlation with iron overload, considering its related complications. This study involved 53 patients of β-thalassemia treated with blood transfusion and iron chelators. Data were collected retrospectively from registries in 2017 and 2018. The hematological and biochemical profiles included complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, fasting blood sugar, serum calcium, serum ferritin, and the endocrine profile for each patient. Among the diagnosed patients included in this study, 51% were males and 49% were females, with an average age of 21 years, ranging from 6 – 57 years. The mean of serum ferritin level during 2017 - 2018 was 2055 ng/dl and for hemoglobin 8.23 mg/dl. Regarding liver function tests, abnormal results for ALT and AST were encountered in 13.2% and 32.1% of cases, respectively. Moreover, serum creatinine, as an indicator for renal function, was found to be abnormally low in 79.2% of cases. Vitamin D3 deficiency was also observed in 35.8% of cases, and hypothyroidism was seen in 26.4% of cases. With regards to the treatment approaches, 84.9% of patients are blood transfusion dependent, and 69.8% of them rely on iron chelators. In this matter, splenectomy was carried out only for 17% of cases. Additionally, BM transplantation was done for 8% of patients even though it is the only available curative therapy. Our preliminary findings point to the urgent need for better management of thalassemia patients in the West Bank. These findings might be used to implement new follow-up and treatment policies.
- ItemIsolation and Microbiological Activity of Whey Protein; Field of Application: the Formulation of Topically-Applicable Cosmetic Compositions(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Herbawi, Raghad; Abu Dbaa, Bana; Rajabi, NoorAlhudaWhey protein is a liquid produced by the processes of the manufacture of milk products, including the cheese industry, a source of health and vitality throughout the ages. However, it has several disadvantages, including that it causes pollution of the environment and groundwater. We will deal with these problems that pose a threat to the environment. Our project aims to reuse the watery by-product of cheese production processes. Whey powder was separated using ordinary cheese production processes, while Whey concentrate was isolated using thermal treatment processes. Each of them was dehydrated at 60º C for two days. The microbiological activities of the Whey protein were studied using agar dilution method on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These solutions of Whey protein with concentrations (10 −2 , 10 −3 ,10 −4 and 10 −5 g extract/ml) in aqueous DMSO were prepared and analyzed for their bacterial growth inhibiting activity. The tested samples in the given concentration range exhibited 90-100% bacterial inhibition. The physiochemical and rheological properties and accelerated stability tests of three cream formulas containing different concentrations of Whey powder as emulsifier (33%, 50 % and 100% w/w) were assessed and compared with commercial cream product containing no Whey powder. All physical and rheological properties of the prepared formulations were found to be the same as the commercial cream product. Stability studies showed a stable homogenous appearance and effective cream during one month of storage at room temperature, 37º C, and at 50º C.
- ItemAssessment of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Lactating Women Visiting Al-Remal Primary Healthcare Clinic in Gaza, Palestine(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Nassar, RawanBreastfeeding has many health benefits for both the mother and infant. Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs for the first six months of life. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia. It may also have long-term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant receives only breast milk. No other liquids or solids are given – not even water – with the exception of oral rehydration solution or drops/syrups of vitamins, minerals or medicines. The results of the PMS study in 2013 show that exclusive breastfeeding in GS is 55%, meanwhile in WB it is 52.9%, and in the state of Palestine it is 53.9%. The World Health Organization estimates that around 220,000 children could be saved each year with exclusive breastfeeding. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, development, and health. The Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding describes the essential interventions to promote, protect and support breastfeeding. In order to survive, grow, and develop properly, infants require the right proportion of nutrients. Breast milk is rich in nutrients and antibodies and contains the right quantities of fat, sugar, water, and protein. These nutrients are major prerequisites to the wellbeing and survival of the baby. When a child is exclusively breastfed, their immune system is strengthened, enabling it to prevent life-threatening illnesses like pneumonia and diarrhea amongst other infections. In fact, reports indicate that newborns who are not breastfed for the first six months of life are 15 times more likely to die from pneumonia compared to those who are breastfed exclusively for six months after birth.
- ItemSynthesis of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles Using Natural Phytochemical as Antineoplastic Therapy(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Al Agha, HalaCancer is the second leading cause of death globally, and was estimated to account for 9.6 million deaths in 2018, according to the WHO. To reduce the significant disability, suffering and deaths caused by cancer worldwide, effective and affordable programs in early diagnosis, screening, treatment, and palliative care are needed. Treatment options may include surgery, medicines and/or radiotherapy. In our research, we try to find a new way to treat cancer naturally. Toxic chemicals are utilized in several of the processes for production of nanoparticles, either in the form of reducing agents to reduce various metal salts to their corresponding nanoparticles, or as stabilizing agents to prevent agglomeration of nanoparticles. These toxic chemicals are powerful reducing agents that are currently used to produce gold and other metallic nanoparticles. These reducing agents are highly toxic to living organisms and to the environment. The purpose of the present experimental study is to prepare biocompatible Gold nanoparticles through 3 months, which contain the phytochemical, with high purity as anti-tumor therapy for destroying of cancer cells. Gold nanoparticles will be synthesized by a “green” procedure in University of Palestine laboratories. Then it will be internalized in cancerous cells to facilitate in detecting and damaging cancerous cells. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake part of this study will be carried on cancerous cells in Rabbits. Gold nanoparticles will be prepared and applied on cancer tissue of ten rabbits. Then, the tissue culture will be checked out by pathologist. The results of the current may indicate that these non-toxic gold nanoparticles can serve as excellent detectable and damageable agent for cancerous cells; it will be a novel approach toward tumor damaging through Nano-pharmaceuticals.
- ItemCharacterizing Goal-Directed Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Hrizat, Ala’Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Children with ADHD show impaired motivational behavior. For example, they tend to select small, immediate over large, delayed rewards. They might be unable to predict the consequences of their actions showing a deficit in action-control strategies. Goals and habits are the two behavioral mechanisms that control actions. Balancing these two behaviors leads to normal action-control. In previous studies, we found that rat models of ADHD demonstrated over-reliance on habits and poor goal-directed actions. This deficit was restored by administering methylphenidate (the most commonly used psychostimulant in ADHD treatment), dopamine D2 receptor agonist or dopamine D1 receptor antagonist. Further, in another pilot study, we found that children with ADHD are less reliant on goal-directed behavior compared to healthy children. In this study, we examined action-control patterns in children with ADHD on- and off- methylphenidate. We hypothesize that on-methylphenidate patients will show different patterns of action-control compared to off-methylphenidate patients. We tested 7 off-medication and 7 on-medication, 6-10 years old children with ADHD, and 13 healthy controls. Participants were 6-10 years old and were group matched for age and sex. We tested patterns of action-control using a computer-based task of the outcome devaluation paradigm that consists of three phases; a training phase, a devaluation phase and a choice test. Children with ADHD were successful at acquiring action-outcome associations as well as showing higher tendency on goal-directed responses. However, throughout the task, on- methylphenidate children showed (1) lower number of errors, (2) higher reaction times and (3) no difference in action-control responses (goals vs. habits). These results indicate that methylphenidate was beneficial in modulating symptoms of ADHD by reducing the number of errors during learning and increasing children’s response times; but it was not effective in improving children’s cognitive profile, reflected by similar action-control patterns in both on and off-medication states.
- ItemRobotic Arm for Dental Automation(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Al Boheissi, IsmaelThe intervention of robotics in the field of dentistry can offer improved and precise treatment with good quality of work in a less amount of time. It can alter the dental health of the people making it much safer. The system will be developed consisting of a preoperative and an intra operative stage. 1. In the preoperative stage, software is used to choose and create medical history files for the patient, and it can monitor the pulse rate and oxygen saturation via finger pulse oximetry. This information will help clinicians monitor the condition of patient during procedures. Followed by taking a cone beam CT image to the patient and a dental x-ray image to the area of chief complaint, software can estimate the maximum carpule of dental anesthesia according to the patient’s age, weight and medical history. 2. The intra operative stage displays the 3D virtual dentitions on the screen with initial interpretation of the image. The diagnosis is made by the clinician with sensory feedback and information processing gathered from the preoperative stage. The diagnodent pen and chemical dyes are used to confirm the diagnosis of the susceptible lesion, using a system which can move in the 6-axis of each tooth for its position along X, Y, Z, lingual, rotation, near-far medium direction. It is used in order to check the position of the patient and the movement of the surgical instruments by intra-oral camera and reference point, which is established by the clinician in the beginning of the procedure. The clinician will finally completely remove the decay or preparation of the tooth with compliance using a minimally invasive concept during the entire procedure.
- ItemSentiment Analysis - Tweets Related to President Trump(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Sharif, MalakIn our project, tweets are collected using the Twitter streaming API from Twitter. The collected tweets are pre-processed using PHP libraries language. The features of the tweets are selected based on Naïve Bayes classifier and are used to classify the tweets as positive, negative or natural. A Sentimental analysis using Twitter data was performed on the opinions about President Trump. A total of 120,000 tweets were collected for analysis in different languages. English tweets were only used. After removing duplicates, retweets, and the cleaning steps, only 21,232 tweets were used in the analyses. Upon sentiment analysis of retrieved Tweets, tweets carried more neutral sentiments about President Trump. About 58% were neutral sentiments, and 25% was positive, and the least were negative 17%. The research has taken President Trump as a target 'case study' of this project, but measures can be applied to other goals in flexibility, only by changing the target element. This project makes it easier for the user to obtain the summarized report about the opinion of Twitter. It is also used to support them in the decision-making process in their daily life activities.
- ItemSerotonin Transporter Genotype Modulates the Effects of Dopamine Transporter Genotype on Learning from Positive and Negative Feedback(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Abu Alrub, MajdPeople vary in their learning from positive or negative feedback. Feedback-based learning is modulated by two main neuromodulators, dopamine and serotonin. Dopamine is a key player in positive feedback processing, where it promotes behavioral activation to seek reward. Serotonin has been linked to negative feedback processing and behavioral inhibition. Dopamine and serotonin levels are regulated in the brain by transporters; the dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT), which are encoded by DAT1 gene and SLC6A4 gene, respectively. Evidence implies that serotonin regulates dopamine release, since dopamine function in reward processing, while serotonin is exhibits behavioral inhibitor which suppresses behavior. The cognitive effects of the interaction between dopamine and serotonin remain to be elucidated. In this study, we are pursuing a multidisciplinary approach to study the molecular and cognitive effects of the interaction of naturally- occurring polymorphisms; the 3′-UTR of the DAT1 gene, a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) which controls the expression of DAT, and the STTP in the SLC6A4 gene which regulates the expression of SERT mRNA. Also, we will construct a neurocomputational model to study the interactions between dopamine and serotonin in feedback-based learning. We recruited a sample of 450 healthy participants from Al-Quds University. All participants completed a probabilistic categorical feedback-based learning task that differentiates learning from positive and negative feedback. Our results suggest that genes that modulate dopamine and serotonin levels affected reward learning but not punishment learning. When we held SLC6A4 constant and varied DAT1 genotypes, there was better learning from both reward and punishment with higher dopamine levels (9-repeat carriers) in the context of higher serotonin levels (short allele carriers). Conversely, there was no difference between DAT1 genotypes in learning from positive and negative feedback in the context of low serotonin levels (long allele homozygotes). When we held DAT1 genotypes constant, there were no differences between SLC6A4 genotypes in the context of high (9-repeat carriers) or low (10-repeat homozygotes) dopamine levels. These findings argue in favor of a modulatory role of serotonin on dopamine function. Future studies will investigate this gene-gene interaction in Parkinson’s disease and Major Depressive Disorder as it relates to cognitive function and response to treatment.
- ItemAssessment of Quality of Life for Thalassemia Patients in Palestine(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Ashour, FareehaThalassemia is the most common hemoglobin disorder in the world; it is a critical issue in the Arab world and Palestine. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the disease and its comorbidities on Palestinian patients’ quality of life, their adherence to iron chelators and satisfaction to health services provided to them. A cross-sectional study enrolled 25 patients of thalassemia major and intermedia from different cities in Palestine. These patients were evaluated for their quality of life using short form-36 questionnaire that consists of two domains (physical component summary-PMC, mental component summary- MCS). The overall scores for each item and for each domain were obtained, ranging from 0 to 100. 0-20 reflect poor, 20-40 reflect bad, 40-60 reflect good, 60-80 reflect very good, and 80-100 reflect excellent. In general, the highest score appears for the social functioning (80.5 ± 4.49) and the lowest one was for physical role (52 ± 9.79). The scores of thalassemia major (PCS 70.80 ± 11.84, MCS 66.47±12.91) were higher than thalassemia intermedia (PCS 61.01± 11.83, MCS 63.74± 8.26). Patients who transfused 12 Units/Year (U/Y) (PCS 63.19 ±12.80, MCS 63.78±11.69) acquired lower scores than patients who transfused 12-24 U/Y (PCS 77.32 ±10.62, MCS 73.43 ±9.57). Adherent patients (PCS 69.28±15.19, MCS 71.20 ±11.58) acquired higher scores than non-adherent patients (PCS 60.32 ±12.52, MCS 59.23 ±9.93). Only 56% of patients were adherent to their iron chelators while 44% were non-adherent. Mean value of patient satisfaction was higher in the north (72.5± 14.19) compared to the south (32.14±30.11) of Palestine. There is a huge need to exert more efforts to improve the quality of life (QoL) for thalassemia patients, since thalassemia has an influence on QoL and limits the physical functioning, mental health, vitality, general health and other physical and emotional abilities. Strategies need to be implemented to increase the adherence to iron chelators and patient satisfaction. A follow-up study that includes higher number of patients from different cities in Palestine is needed.
- ItemStrategies in the Treatment of Crohn’s Disease(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Abbad, DoaaCrohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with uncertain etiology. A retrospective study was conducted in which medical record of 58 Crohn’s disease patients at the Yammah hospital and Bethlehem Arab Society for Rehabilitation was reviewed between November 2016 and March 2017. This study’s results indicate that about 51.7% of patients went to doctors with mild disease, 27.6% of patients went in with moderate disease, and 13.8% of patients went to doctors with severe disease. Our findings indicate that the gastroenterologists included in the study do not use the Crohn’s Disease Activity index to evaluate the disease score; instead, disease severity is determined according to their experience. As such, results that used patient records are likely influenced by doctor’s experience. Abdominal pain is a very common condition in 52% of Crohn’s Disease patients; this pain can be either acute or chronic in nature. Other symptoms may include diarrhea, reported in 15.7% of CD patients. As for the location of disease, the most commonly affected part of GIT is the ileum, in 49.1% of CD patients. The second most commonly affected part of GIT is the ileum and colon. The age category most affected is between 15-30 years old, with 58.6% of patients in this age range. The medication of choice in CD patients is the immunomodulatory drug 5-Aminosalysilic acid, used in 66.7% of cases. Moreover, in some patients with moderate to severe disease, a combination of drugs, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine and infliximab, is used to achieve remission. Also, 17.2% of patients used corticosteroids with other medications. In conclusion, the study characterized CD patient population in Palestinian Bethlehem area hospitals. The study indicates that doctors need to be encouraged to use Crohn’s Disease activity index to obtain a disease score. Medication use seems to be consistent with guidance although excessive use of corticosteroids is evident.
- ItemThe Effect of L- Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Dl-Alpha – Tocopherol Acetate (Vitamin E) and White Grape Seed Oil on Colorful Melanin Concentrations Using Synthetic Melanin(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Abu Hanieh, Areej; Hasouneh, SundosVitamin C is used as an antioxidant to treat UV-induced skin pigmentation disease. When combining it with Vitamin E, its antioxidant effect increases by 4 folds. Grape-seed-oil contains phenols like catechin which express a powerful antioxidant effect and a whitening effect. Combining the three agents together gives a synergistic effect that magnifies the decreasing colorful melanin concentrations. Objectives: To determine the effect of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and grape-seed-oil on melanin concentrations separately then determine the synergistic effect for three ingredients together. Synthetic melanin calibration’s curve was constructed using spectrophotometer; then Vitamin C, Vitamin E and grape-seed-oil were added to the melanoma cells. Cell viability was measured after 72 hours using hemocytometer, then different concentrations of the agents and its combinations were added to the synthetic melanin solutions in order to measure melanin concentrations using spectrophotometer. The combination of the three ingredients (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and grape-seed-oil) achieved an extremely statistically significant decreasing in melanin concentration. The combinations that contain grape-seed-oil showed higher effect on melanin concentration reduction than the combinations without grape-seed-oil; Vitamin C and Vitamin E separately did not show any significant reduction on melanin concentrations and grape-seed-oil showed a statistically significant effect on decreasing melanin concentrations. The combinations of the three ingredients together (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and grape-seed-oil) achieved the lowest p-value (Extremely statistical significant) and the lowest melanin concentration, while Grape-seed-oil was the only ingredient that achieved statistically significant decrease in melanin concentrations.
- ItemTraditional Architectural Techniques and Their Application in Contemporary Architecture(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Wafi, HebaThis study seeks to take advantage of traditional architectural techniques and their application in contemporary architecture. Since ancient times (see, for example, Hoben and Guillard, 1994), man interacted with the surrounding environment by looking for mechanisms to meet his needs, working on building techniques (Fayez, 2009), which was based primarily on the use of local raw materials as construction materials. This is due to the fact that these materials provide him thermal comfort at low cost in both climates, hot and cold (Abboud, 2014). This study shows the environmental treatments, as an example of traditional architecture techniques, to develop them as well as employ them in contemporary architectural design, in line with the requirements as an architectural style. This study shows the importance of traditional construction techniques using local building materials, such as sand, as well as the positive or negative impact of these materials on contemporary architectural design.
- ItemCleanEcare(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Atrash, Lutfi; Ayyad, Samah; Odeh, Rula; Tuqan, AhmadCleanEcare is a new idea that uses electricity to clean and sterilize medical clothes to create a hygienic medical atmosphere and to reduce dangerous illnesses. We started research on September 2018 by conducting experiments in the fields of microbiology and engineering. The reasoning behind our research is based on the principles of microbiology, especially the effect of electricity on bacteria and its mechanism of killing microorganisms. We have conducted many experiments on bacteria by measuring the amount present on the cloth before and after the use of electricity. We have a lot of results that are both logical and illogical so we will continue our testing in order to obtain more accurate results.
- ItemKnowledge, Attitude and Practices of Palestinian University Students Regarding Vitamin D(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Qawasmi, Shahd; Al-Handi, SadiyaVitamin D is one of the fat-soluble vitamins; the sun is the main source for it. It is important in increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc. Vitamin D is vital for bone growth and other multiple biological effects. Therefore, its deficiency or imbalance will lead to major problems. This study evaluated the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding vitamin D (D-KAP) in a sample of Palestinian university students. A cross sectional study was performed. Data collection forms were distributed in six Palestinian universities totaling 400 completed forms during the period of January to March 2019. The Analysis was performed using (IBM SPSS) version 23 for Windows. Correlation tests were used to determine the association between the socio-demographic data and the D-KAP study. These completed forms found that, knowledge wise, 57.8% of the students had poor knowledge about vitamin D, while 42.2% of them had a good general knowledge. In terms of awareness, 53.8% were found to be unaware about vitamin D, while 46.3% have good awareness. In terms of practice, 57.5% had bad practice, while 42.5% of the participants were found to have good practice. Our results indicated that the majority of the Palestinian university students had poor knowledge, bad attitude and negative practices toward vitamin D. Therefore, an important step should be addressed toward raising awareness and ensuring the right education and knowledge regarding vitamin D in the Palestinian community.
- ItemThe New Voice of Resistance in Palestinian Hip-Hop: DAM and the Representation of Arab Women(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Najarian, Layan; Ameer, LucianaThis study aimed to find the effect of the specific language varieties used by the Palestinian hip-hop group DAM on the ways that feminist themes of honor killing, the objectifying of women, and the categorizing and marginalizing of Arab women are represented in songs. The research techniques involved inspecting and finding the feminist themes presented in five songs performed by DAM as well as analyzing the effect of language use on those themes. Among the five is one unreleased song that we heard in a concert and obtained permission to include it in our study. In addition, the researchers applied Tyson’s (2006) discussion of feminism to examine the themes of the songs. The researchers found that DAM uses multiple languages and language varieties including the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), Colloquial Arabic (CA), and Hebrew as well as words borrowed from the English and Hebrew languages. DAM exploits these languages to communicate cultural issues and social critique in subtle ways to a wide audience, simultaneously local and international. For example, their use of particular MSA words heightens the seriousness of their topics while their use of CA words, marked as very local and very informal, reminds Palestinian listeners that the problems being discussed are part of their national culture, a part that Palestinians can change. Our goal in choosing this topic was to examine the representation of Arab women through the lens of Palestinian hip hop written and performed mainly by feminist Arab men although, importantly, female performers are involved as well.
- ItemDetermining the Impact of the ASP Health Club’s Nutrition Initiative Awareness Campaign on Elementary Students’ Eating Habits(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Tawil, Omar; Khatib, Hala; Hijjeh, NoorRecent modernization is day by day dominating our life more than ever before. That modernization impacts a lot of aspects, and one of the most crucial aspects is human nutrition. It impacts all ages; however, specifically, those in third grade through fifth grade. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness and impact of the ASP Heart Health Club awareness campaigns on the students’ daily eating habits that are affected by modern-day nutrition styles and to know the extent to which those little ones may be at risk and help them. We collected information including: weight, height, and BMI from approximately two hundred third through fifth graders of both genders along with a survey containing questions regarding their daily eating habits. The questions were about the number of fruits eaten in a day, and whether or not junk food was eaten also. The data was collected, recorded and analyzed thrice using a clinical chart to allot the results precisely. The data was processed for the presence of outliers, which were statistically removed. Based on the data collected, we found a slight increase the number of fruits and vegetables eaten on a daily basis, but no significant reduction in the amount of junk food eaten by the students. According to similar studies, these types of campaigns that aim to provide healthier food alternatives for kids have succeeded almost everywhere especially because those grades are the ones mostly at risk to develop unhealthy eating habits. We believe that longer study duration and a more effective campaign program may lead to better awareness of the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and making better nutritional choices.
- ItemIn Vitro Assessment of Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activity of Wheat Sprouts Extracts(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Gheith, NameerCancer is a major public health problem. Researches show that tens of millions of people around the world suffer from cancer, and almost all ultimately die from it. Cancer is often thought of as an untreatable and painful disease. Although the development of cancer increases with age, people may develop cancer due to lifestyle, genetic mutations, or cell damage. Nevertheless, environmental effects may act as factors that lead to the development of cancer. Treatment of cancer is still being studied. The only choice for treating cancer patients nowadays is anticancer drugs and chemotherapy. The side effects may damage the whole body since anticancer drugs affect not only cancer cells, but also normal healthy cells. As a result, this leads to immunosuppression of the body. The inhibition of the immune system allows bacteria to infect the body, so the patients require antibiotics which are the first defense line against bacterial infections. Cancer patient will suffer more with the side effects of antibiotics along with anticancer drugs and chemotherapy. Accordingly, researches are trying to find alternative treatments that are less toxic than chemicals, like natural plants. Researches began using plant extracts which have always been rich sources for many compounds that are useful for producing drugs. In this study, specific plant sprouts will be used, which are wheat sprouts. This is because they have many nutrients that improve metabolism, keep normal blood sugar levels, and eliminate toxins by neutralizing them. After planting the wheat seeds, the sprouts will be dried in shade, and the anticancer and antimicrobial extracts will be obtained. Specific techniques will be used in order to examine the biological activity of these antioxidants, including the anticancer and the antimicrobial agents. Agar diffusion method will be used for evaluating the width of the inhibition zone. Later, the minimal inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial extracts will be determined. In addition, the anticancer extracts will be experimentally used on different cancer cell lines, and by counting the floating cells, the number of dead cells will be compared with that of live cells. Afterwards, according to the results, wheat sprouts will be evaluated and tested if they can be used as antimicrobial and anticancer agents or not, by using different concentrations.