Diabetes

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Overview

Use of HbA1c to diagnose type 2 diabetes Mellitus. Gestational diabetes and adverse pregnancy outcome is under investigation. Type 2 diabetes in children will be investigated in schools. A platform will be developed to follow up risk factors like obesity, lack of exercise, unhealty food and genetics. The program will highlight the risk factors for each students to be used by parents, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health and School administration to overcome these risk factors and to treat those who developed diabetes.

Our Team

  • Akram Kharroubi

    Ph.D.

  • Hisham Darwish

    Ph.D.

    Mohammad Zaidan

    Ph.D.

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    Recent Submissions

    Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
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      Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century
      (Baishideng Publishing Group Inc., 2015-06-25) Kharroubi, Akram T ; Darwish, Hisham M
      The epidemic nature of diabetes mellitus in different regions is reviewed. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults (10.9%) whereas, the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and has countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (37.5%). Different classes of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. The molecular genetics of diabetes received extensive attention in recent years by many prominent investigators and research groups in the biomedical field. A large array of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that play a role in the various steps and pathways involved in glucose metabolism and the development, control and function of pancreatic cells at various levels are reviewed. The major advances in the molecular understanding of diabetes in relation to the different types of diabetes in comparison to the previous understanding in this field are briefly reviewed here. Despite the accumulation of extensive data at the molecular and cellular levels, the mechanism of diabetes development and complications are still not fully understood. Definitely, more extensive research is needed in this field that will eventually reflect on the ultimate objective to improve diagnoses, therapy and minimize the chance of chronic complications development.
    • Item
      Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century
      (Baishideng Publishing Group Inc., 2015-06-25) Kharroubi, Akram T ; Darwish, Hisham M
      The epidemic nature of diabetes mellitus in different regions is reviewed. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults (10.9%) whereas, the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and has countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (37.5%). Different classes of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. The molecular genetics of diabetes received extensive attention in recent years by many prominent investigators and research groups in the biomedical field. A large array of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that play a role in the various steps and pathways involved in glucose metabolism and the development, control and function of pancreatic cells at various levels are reviewed. The major advances in the molecular understanding of diabetes in relation to the different types of diabetes in comparison to the previous understanding in this field are briefly reviewed here. Despite the accumulation of extensive data at the molecular and cellular levels, the mechanism of diabetes development and complications are still not fully understood. Definitely, more extensive research is needed in this field that will eventually reflect on the ultimate objective to improve diagnoses, therapy and minimize the chance of chronic complications development.
    • Item
      Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331 288 participants.
      ( 2015-06-22) Abdeen, Ziad
      Background Diabetes has been defi ned on the basis of diff erent biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the eff ect of diff erent diagnostic defi nitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classifi cation of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in diff erent regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defi ning diabetes. Diabetes was defi ned using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT defi nitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using diff erent defi nitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specifi city of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specifi city in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-eff ects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2–6 percentage points at diff erent prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age–sex–survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two defi nitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA1c-based prevalences was partly related to participants’ age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specifi c communities. Diabetes defi ned as HbA1c 6·5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52·8% (95% CI 51·3–54·3%) and a pooled specifi city of 99·74% (99·71–99·78%) compared with FPG 7·0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defi ned based on FPGor- 2hOGTT was 30·5% (28·7–32·3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA1c versus FPG.
    • Item
      Total Antioxidant Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Palestine
      (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015-05-12) Kharroubi, Akram T. ; Darwish, Hisham M. ; Akkawi, Mutaz A. ; Ashareef, Abdelkareem A. ; Almasri, Zaher A. ; Bader, Khaldoun A. ; Khammash, Umaiyeh M.
      The objective of this study was to compare the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) in type 2 diabetic and normal Palestinian subjects as well as the major factors influencing TAS levels. A sample of convenience composed of 212 type 2 diabetic and 208 normal subjects above the age of 40 were recruited. Only 9.8% of the subjects had normal bodymass index (BMI) levels (<25), 29% were overweight (≥25 to <30), and 61.2% were obese (≥30). The mean levels of TAS were significantly higher in diabetic compared to control subjects (2.18 versus 1.84mM Trolox, P = 0.001) and in hypertensive subjects compared to subjects with normal blood pressure (BP).Mean TAS levels were higher in obese compared to nonobese subjects (2.12 versus 1.85mMTrolox, P = 0.001).Mean TAS levels were similarly higher in subjects with high fasting plasma glucose (FPG) compared to normal FPG (2.19 versus 1.90mM Trolox) and high HbA1c (≥6.5%) compared to HbA1c < 6.5% (2.14 versus 1.91mMTrolox).Multivariate analysis revealed that only diabetic status (P = 0.032) and the level of education (P = 0.036) were significantly associated with TAS. In conclusion diabetic patients had 18.5% increase in TAS levels compared to control subjects.