# Philosophy in Islam

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تنزيه الله في ذاته وصفاته في شرح ابن أبي الحديد المعتزلي لكتاب نهج البلاغة
(Al-Quds University, 2019-01-14) محمد عبد المجيد خليل كواملة; Mohammad Abd Al-majeed Khaleel Kawamleh
This thesis aims at discussing the position of Abd Al-Hamid Ibn Hibatullah Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed Al-Mua'tazili (d. 656 AH) regarding the Transcendence of God, in his interpretation of Nahj Al-Balagha, which is a collection of sermons, letters and wisdoms attributed to the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib. It should be noted that they were collected in Nahj Al-Balagha by Al-Sharif Al- Rida (d. 406 AH) There is a dialectical relation between Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed and this book. It's clear that wherever Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed is mentioned, his interpretation of Nahj Al-Balagha is mentioned as the most important. Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed mentioned that he explained Nahj Al-Balagha as per the request of Mu’ayyad Al-Din Al-Alqami (d. 656 AH), who was a vizier for Al-Mustasim Billah, the last of the Abbasid Caliphs. Even the fact that Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed is one of the scholars of kalam, still his contribution to kalam in Nahj Al-Balagha was not discussed independently by researchers. Therefore, Nahj Al-Balagha didn't get the deserved Philosophical study. So, I decided to direct my research to introducing the approach of Ibn Abi Al-Haded to the Transcendence of God, through what he wrote in his book Sharh Nahj Al-Balagha. This research consists of an introduction , four chapters and a conclusion. The introduction: I mentioned the importance of the reseach and its goals and my methodology, and I also menthined that there is a proplematic controversy that the Islamic sects have regarding the Transcendence of God when they interpret the Qur’an. Chapter one: Introduces Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed Al-Mua'tazili, the book of Nahj Al-Balagha and Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed’s kalam opinions. Chapter Two: It includes the philosophy of Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed on God's Transcendence within monotheism. I talk about transcendence of the divine self in its existence and perception also, the Transcendence of God in being Eternal and Everlasting. Chapter three : It includes affirming God's Transcendence through negating associating Him with place and direction, observability through seeing and corporeality, and incarnation and unification with creation. Chapter Four: It includes a comparative analysis of Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed’s perspectives on Kalam in contrast to other philosophers, especially Aristotle’s philosophy and that of Imam Al-Ghazali. This chapter is divided into three parts: The first one is about proving the existence of God, the second deals with His attributes and their relation to the His essence, and finally, the issue of the first cause of universe and it's relation to the substance of existence. Conclusion: It includes the most important results I reached in my research in the philosophy of Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed on the Transcendence of God.
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الفضيلة والسعادة بين أرسطو وابن مسكوية بحث مقدم لنيل درجة الماجستير في الفلسفة
(Al-Quds University, 2020-06-07) سيرين عوض عبد صباح; Cyrine Awad Abed Sabbah
This thesis deals with the term 'happiness', which is controversial in the philosophical field to this day, through a number of philosophers (Plato, Aristotle, Farabi and Ibn Miscaweh) with a focus on Aristotle and Miscaweh who have linked the concept of happiness to the concept of 'virtue'. The letter focuses on clarifying the meaning of these two terms, how it differed from philosopher to philosopher, depending on the political, cultural and religious reference circumstances, the important role played by the Greek heritage in shaping the ideology of Islamic philosophy, and how Muslim philosophers developed and added to this heritage in proportion to their own culture. The thesis also focuses on the concept of 'justice', which was considered by some to be the product of fundamental virtues and the ideal expression of balance between them.
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المتحول في القيمة الجمالية من المثالية إلى المادية الجدلية
(Al-Quds University, 2019-11-27) حنين موسى صلاح; haneen mousa elian salah
The study aimed to address the vision of aesthetic thought by analyzing the shift in beauty from idealism to dialectical materialism while analyzing the most important philosophers ’opinions in this field. Pillars of aesthetic, materialistic and idealistic thought? What are the manifestations or approaches of the material aesthetic value and the ideal and the ideal in the arts? The study concluded with a set of findings and recommendations, the most important of which are: 1-Romanticism focuses on the individual while realism focuses on society, Romanticism focuses on emotion while realism focuses on the soul of the group, 2- Romanticism uses bright colors that express emotional feelings while realism uses colors that express the cruelty of society, 3- Romanticism focuses on construction Mental As for realism, its focus was on physical construction. 4- Romanticism focuses on higher values such as truth, goodness and beauty, while realism focuses on community service. As for the most important recommendations, they are: 1- The necessity of paying attention to the aesthetic aspect of philosophy and intensifying research on this topic and the necessity to open a special section on the philosophy of beauty in universities
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دوافع استراتيجية إبن خلدون المفضله للبداوة والعصبية تحقيقا للتغلب فنشوء الدولة مع الرئاسة / دراسة ونقد وتحليل
(Al-Quds University, 2016-07-19) حسين محمد حسين حسن جاموس; Hussain Mohammad Jamous