Philosophy in Islam


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    تنزيه الله في ذاته وصفاته في شرح ابن أبي الحديد المعتزلي لكتاب نهج البلاغة
    (Al-Quds University, 2019-01-14) محمد عبد المجيد خليل كواملة; Mohammad Abd Al-majeed Khaleel Kawamleh
    This thesis aims at discussing the position of Abd Al-Hamid Ibn Hibatullah Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed Al-Mua'tazili (d. 656 AH) regarding the Transcendence of God, in his interpretation of Nahj Al-Balagha, which is a collection of sermons, letters and wisdoms attributed to the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib. It should be noted that they were collected in Nahj Al-Balagha by Al-Sharif Al- Rida (d. 406 AH) There is a dialectical relation between Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed and this book. It's clear that wherever Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed is mentioned, his interpretation of Nahj Al-Balagha is mentioned as the most important. Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed mentioned that he explained Nahj Al-Balagha as per the request of Mu’ayyad Al-Din Al-`Alqami (d. 656 AH), who was a vizier for Al-Musta`sim Billah, the last of the Abbasid Caliphs. Even the fact that Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed is one of the scholars of kalam, still his contribution to kalam in Nahj Al-Balagha was not discussed independently by researchers. Therefore, Nahj Al-Balagha didn't get the deserved Philosophical study. So, I decided to direct my research to introducing the approach of Ibn Abi Al-Haded to the Transcendence of God, through what he wrote in his book Sharh Nahj Al-Balagha. This research consists of an introduction , four chapters and a conclusion. The introduction: I mentioned the importance of the reseach and its goals and my methodology, and I also menthined that there is a proplematic controversy that the Islamic sects have regarding the Transcendence of God when they interpret the Qur’an. Chapter one: Introduces Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed Al-Mua'tazili, the book of Nahj Al-Balagha and Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed’s kalam opinions. Chapter Two: It includes the philosophy of Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed on God's Transcendence within monotheism. I talk about transcendence of the divine self in its existence and perception also, the Transcendence of God in being Eternal and Everlasting. Chapter three : It includes affirming God's Transcendence through negating associating Him with place and direction, observability through seeing and corporeality, and incarnation and unification with creation. Chapter Four: It includes a comparative analysis of Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed’s perspectives on Kalam in contrast to other philosophers, especially Aristotle’s philosophy and that of Imam Al-Ghazali. This chapter is divided into three parts: The first one is about proving the existence of God, the second deals with His attributes and their relation to the His essence, and finally, the issue of the first cause of universe and it's relation to the substance of existence. Conclusion: It includes the most important results I reached in my research in the philosophy of Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed on the Transcendence of God.
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    الفضيلة والسعادة بين أرسطو وابن مسكوية بحث مقدم لنيل درجة الماجستير في الفلسفة
    (Al-Quds University, 2020-06-07) سيرين عوض عبد صباح; Cyrine Awad Abed Sabbah
    This thesis deals with the term 'happiness', which is controversial in the philosophical field to this day, through a number of philosophers (Plato, Aristotle, Farabi and Ibn Miscaweh) with a focus on Aristotle and Miscaweh who have linked the concept of happiness to the concept of 'virtue'. The letter focuses on clarifying the meaning of these two terms, how it differed from philosopher to philosopher, depending on the political, cultural and religious reference circumstances, the important role played by the Greek heritage in shaping the ideology of Islamic philosophy, and how Muslim philosophers developed and added to this heritage in proportion to their own culture. The thesis also focuses on the concept of 'justice', which was considered by some to be the product of fundamental virtues and the ideal expression of balance between them.
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    المتحول في القيمة الجمالية من المثالية إلى المادية الجدلية
    (Al-Quds University, 2019-11-27) حنين موسى صلاح; haneen mousa elian salah
    The study aimed to address the vision of aesthetic thought by analyzing the shift in beauty from idealism to dialectical materialism while analyzing the most important philosophers ’opinions in this field. Pillars of aesthetic, materialistic and idealistic thought? What are the manifestations or approaches of the material aesthetic value and the ideal and the ideal in the arts? The study concluded with a set of findings and recommendations, the most important of which are: 1-Romanticism focuses on the individual while realism focuses on society, Romanticism focuses on emotion while realism focuses on the soul of the group, 2- Romanticism uses bright colors that express emotional feelings while realism uses colors that express the cruelty of society, 3- Romanticism focuses on construction Mental As for realism, its focus was on physical construction. 4- Romanticism focuses on higher values such as truth, goodness and beauty, while realism focuses on community service. As for the most important recommendations, they are: 1- The necessity of paying attention to the aesthetic aspect of philosophy and intensifying research on this topic and the necessity to open a special section on the philosophy of beauty in universities
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    دوافع استراتيجية إبن خلدون المفضله للبداوة والعصبية تحقيقا للتغلب فنشوء الدولة مع الرئاسة / دراسة ونقد وتحليل
    (Al-Quds University, 2016-07-19) حسين محمد حسين حسن جاموس; Hussain Mohammad Jamous
    The Scene Time and Social Scope of the study: I adopted in the study, my personal approach supported by the available various analytical and critique studies, on Ibn Khaldun’s methodology in writing al-Muqaddama, at the University library, local bookstores and the Internet. The study covered two academic terms, six hours a day seeking assistance from my supervisor Dr. Sari Nussaibeh, with the available material studies by critics. My purpose of the study was to define the effect of the catastrophic disasters, and personal hardships that faced Ibn Khaldun, and how they affected the writings of his al-Muqaddama, and the analysis of four major factors i.e. bandouinism, civilization, tribalism and Arab. I traced his life and writings in his autobiography. I then made an analysis to various stages of his life and the encounters he faced to assess their psychological effect on his writing the ‘Introduction’, al-Muqaddama, and I put forward the basic elements and the orientations that shaped the philosophy Ibn Khaldun adopted in his book, which helped me in clearing the ambiguities, and reach solutions to these ambiguities. The philosophy and the motives behind the study The philosophy and the motivation behind the study is to make an unprecedented new approach in reading al-Muqaddama through Ibn Khaldun’s biography, and amalgamate and fuse his personal life in the general context of the book, to grasp their direct influence on his production. The methodology of the study: I focused on two books of Ibn Khaldun: al-T‘areif bi Ibn Khaldun wa ri‘hlatihi Sarqan wa Gharban’, which is Ibn Khaldun’s autobiography, and al-Muqaddama proper. The comprehensive examination of these two books put forward certain questions: Do the principles of sociology, family association, amalgamation of tribalism into nations, and the establishment of states and monarchism have special effects in the formation of Ibn Khaldun’s personal way of life, praising badouins and vilifying Arabs wherever he gets the opportunity throughout his book? To find answers to these queries, I divided my study into two main volumes: the first is dedicated to Ibn Khaldun biography subdividing the study into chapters, the second volume is dedicated to al-Muqaddama proper, concentrating on the four categories related to the study, which I also fragmented into chapters. Conclusion and Recommendations The structure of al-Muqaddama is fundamentally influenced by Ibn Khaldun’s attitude and system he adopted throughout his career. The conceptions of Ibn Khaldun on badawa, ahl al-‘hadhar, and ‘asabiyyah could not be generalized to cover humanity, but it describes Ibn Khaldun’s period in human history, which conveyed the extinct heritage of that epoch of history. It is recommended that a comprehensive research be made in Ibn Khaldun’s career, and take it as basic foundation in assessing, analyzing, or critiquing the variant branches of science in the al-Muqaddama of Ibn Khaldun.