Agriculture Extension


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 11
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    Influence of Transglutaminase and Thermal Treatment on Yield and Storage Stability of Traditional Palestinian Dairy Products
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-08-07) Hiba Ahmad Mahmood Abed; هبة أحمد محمود عابد
    In the conventional dairy processes, a considerable amount of protein is lost with the whey, as protein is a valuable component of milk and milk products, therefore, incorporating whey proteins in dairy products will increase the yield, as the presence of whey proteins allowed higher moisture retention, due to their hydrophilic property, and thus higher yield obtained.Several methods have been used to reduce the whey separation in dairy products, such as application of stabilizers, milk derived constituents, and starter cultures. One of the methods that also used to reduce loss of whey protein is the enzymatic treatment of milk with Transglutaminase. TG enzyme form new intra- and intermolecular crosslinks between milk proteins. Such crosslinks can modify the structure and functionality of the proteins. Several factors affect the efficiency of Transglutaminase whey proteins crosslinking with curd proteins. One of the most important factors is heat treatment of milk. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of different pasteurization temperatures combined with different enzyme concentrations, on the yield and whey percentages in the concentrated yogurt (Labneh), and in the yield percentage of the local white- brined cheese. Concentrated yogurt (Labneh) milk was pasteurized at different pasteurization temperatures (65 C°/ 30 min, 72 C°/ 15 sec, 82 C°/ 15 sec, and 90 C°/ 15 sec), and after each pasteurization, the milk was treated with different TG ratios (0, 1, 3, and 5 gm TG/kg milk). As well as, in the local white- brined cheese manufacturing, milk was pasteurized at different pasteurization temperatures (65 C°/ 30 min, 72 C°/ 15 sec, and 82 C°/ 15 sec), and after each pasteurization, the milk was treated with different TG ratios (0, 1, 3, and 5 gm TG/kg milk).This study demonstrated that the inclusion of TG into the concentrated yogurt increases yield percentage, and reduces whey loss. In addition, TG inclusion into the local white brined cheese increases the yield percentage. The obtained yield improvement was due to TG crosslinking of milk proteins. Results showed that the concentrated yogurt yield significantly improved when the milk was pasteurized at (90 C°/ 15 sec), followed by treatment with enzyme ratio of (3 gm TG/ kg milk). For the local white- brined cheese, yield significantly improved when the milk was pasteurized at (72 C°/ 15 sec), and followed by treatment with enzyme ratio of (3 gm TG/ kg milk).Concentrated yogurt (Labneh) samples with highest yield and lowest whey percentages, as well as, the local white brined cheese samples with highest yield percentage, underwent physicochemical and microbial analysis when fresh, at (15, and 30) day of storage period. The physicochemical results for both products showed that samples produced with enzyme treatment exhibited higher pH values, lower titratable acidity values, higher moisture content, lower syneresis (for treated Labneh samples), and lower dry matter content (for treated cheese samples). In terms of microbial analysis, results showed that in treated Labneh samples enzyme crosslinking retard the growth of lactic acid bacteria resulting in lower numbers and longer time of coagulation. In treated local white- brined cheese samples, coliform counts were lower than the control during storage period. However, both TG treated products exhibited higher yeast and mold growth than the control samples.The study recommended mainly to use TG as method to improve the yield, especially if combined with the suitable pasteurization temperature for each product. In addition to the possibility of dispensing the stabilizers use. It also recommends further studies to investigate the sensorial and rheological properties of TG treated samples. As well, studies needed to investigate the effect of transglutaminase addition on the fermentation or coagulation time; to take time cost into consideration.
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    Molecular Characterization of Palestinian Local Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.)
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-03-11) Shayma Osama Zeidan Al-Jubeh; شيماء أسامه زيدان الجعبة
    Cucurbita pepo L. is one of the most economically important crops in the Cucurbitaceae, and it gains this value from the culinary uses of immature fruit that’s referred as “summer squash”. In Palestine, the local zucchini which is one of the varieties of summer squash is very popular for the consumers and there is a high market demand on it. Palestinian zucchini is widely grown in the areas of Hebron, Bethlehem, and Ramallah and it is characterized by long growing season, and its leaves are dark green, in addition to its green fruits with a strong aroma, flavor and taste.This study was performed to assess the genetic diversity of the local Palestinian zucchini using SSR markers. Thirty three zucchini samples were collected in which twenty-six of them were local accessions obtained from the Union of Agricultural Work Committees (UAWC). The other seven accessions were commercial accessions gathered from a local agricultural equipment store. In addition to the zucchini samples, six accessions from other species of the Cucurbitacaea family were studied, including gourd, snake melon, and muskmelon. All of the samples were grown in an open field in order to make note of some morphological traits and to make visual documentation. The accessions were assessed using 50 SSR markers; only nine primers were used in the analysis as they have produced polymorphic bands. Out of the nine, primer UAWC 39 produced a unique band for the gourd accessions while producing no bands for the muskmelon or snake melon accessions. Therefore, this primer can be a potential primer to differentiate between zucchini and gourd. On the other hand, primer UAWC 13 produced a unique band for the muskmelon and snake melon accessions, while gourd and zucchini accessions produced identical bands. Accordingly, this primer can be used to differentiate zucchini and gourd accessions from snake melon and muskmelon accessions.The nine SSR primers used in the analyses produced total 27 polymorphic SSR loci.According to these results, the genetic distance matrix was calculated according to the Jacquard's similarity coefficient and the distance between the squash accessions ranged between (0.00 – 0.68). The lowest genetic distance was observed between two commercial accessions; therefore it was assumed that these two accessions are identical with different commercial names. Furthermore, a neighbor joining tree was constructed according to the genetic distance matrix that was calculated using Jacquard similarity coefficient formula. NJ tree clustered the accessions to four major groups and it has shown how the accessions of gourd, muskmelon, and snake melon are away from squash accessions. In addition to that, it has also shown how there is a genetic variation among the local accessions of zucchini. This genetic diversity among local zucchini accessions is a source of genetic material that can be used for classical breeding or new biotechnological techniques to produce new varieties that are better suited to the changing environment if the need arises. Therefore we recommend that these local accessions continue to be maintained, are further characterized, and are made available to scientists and farmers for crop improvement. تم اجراء هذا البحث من اجل دراسة التنوع الوراثي لنبات الكوسا البلدي في فلسطين. حيث يعتبر الكوسا أحد اهم انواع القرعيات في فلسطين ذات الطلب العالي في الأسواق المحلية كونها محببة لدى المستهلكين. يتميز الكوسا البلدي بموسم نمو طويل و ثمار خضراء داكنة اللون ذات رائحة و نكهة قوية ومميزة، وتزرع بشكل كبير في مناطق الخليل و بيت لحم ورام الله. شملت الدراسة ثلاثة وثلاثون عينة من الكوسا، حيث كانت ستة وعشرون منها عبارة عن كوسا بلدي تم جمعها من بنك البذور التابع للجان اتحاد العمل الزراعي والسبع عينات الأخرى كانت عينات تجارية من السوق المحلي. بالاضافة لأصناف الكوسا فقد تم دراسة ستة عينات من أصناف اخرى من عائلة القرعيات وهي القرع والشمام والبطيخ. ومن أجل اتمام الدراسة تم استخدام الواسم الجزيئي SSR marker. من أجل اتمام الدراسة تم استخدام الواسم الجزيئي " SSR marker" حيث تم استخدام ٥٠ برايمر ولكن فقط تسعة منها تم استخدامها في التحليل لأنها انتجت نتائج مرضية من أجل اتمام هدف الدراسة. واحدة من النتائج المهمة التي ظهرت باستخدام هذه البرايمرات كانت باستخدام برايمر (39UAWC ) حيث أظهر علامات خاصة ومميزة لنباتات القرع بينما لم يظهر أي علامات للبطيخ أو الشمام وبذلك من الممكن استخدامه للتفريق بين الكوسا و القرع. من ناحية أخرى، انتج البرايمر (13 UAWC) علامات خاصة للشمام والبطيخ بينما تشارك القرع بعلامات خاصه مع الكوسا. بناء على النتائج التي ظهرت باستخدام الواسم الجزيئي تم استخدام برنامج FAMD من أجل دراسة التنوع الوراثي للعينات. بالبداية تم حساب المسافة الوراثية بين العينات باستخدام مؤشر جاكارد حيث تراوحت المسافة بين عينات الكوسا بين (0.00 - 0.68). لوحظت أدنى مسافة وراثية بين مدخلين تجاريين ؛ لذلك تم افتراض أن هذين المُدخلين متطابقان مع أسماء تجارية مختلفة. بالاضافة لذلك، تم انشاء شجرة قرابة neighbor joining وفقا لمصفوفة المسافة الوراثية. قد قسمت الشجرة العينات لأربع مجموعات رئيسية و أظهرت أن مدخلات القرع و البطيخ والشمام في مجموعة خاصة بعيدة عن الكوسا و بذلك فقد تقسمت عينات الكوسا لثلاث مجموعات رئيسية وهذا يدل على وجود تنوع وراثي بين هذه العينات. كما أظهرت ان بعض عينات الكوسا البلدي قد تكون هجينة لكونها على مسافة قريبة جدا من العينات التجارية وفي نفس المجموعة التي تضم العينات التجارية. هذا التنوع الوراثي بين مدخلات الكوسة البلدية هو مصدر للمواد الوراثية لتي يمكن استخدامها لإنتاج أصناف جديدة أكثر ملاءمة للبيئة إذا دعت الحاجة. لذلك نوصي بمواصلة الحفاظ على هذه المُدخَلات البلدية وتوصيفها بشكل أكب وإتاحتها للعلماء والمزارعين لتحسين المحاصيل.
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    تأثير تطبيق معيار المحاسبة الدولي رقم (IAS 19) "منافع الموظفين" على تقييم أداء الشركات الخدماتية والصناعية المدرجة في بورصة فلسطين
    (جامعة القدس, 2021-12-06) زين الدين محمد علي الجرادات; Zain Addeen Mohammad Ali AL-Jaradat
    هدفت الدراسة إلى دراسة وفحص تأثير تطبيق معيار المحاسبة الدولي رقم (IAS 19) "منافع الموظفين" على الأداء المالي للشركات المدرجة في بورصة فلسطين، حيث طبقت الدراسة على مجتمع القطاع الخدماتي والصناعي والذي بلغ عدده (22) شركة، وتم اختيار عينة عشوائية بسيطة ليكون العدد النهائي لعينة الدراسة (15) شركة. وشملت الدراسة في متغيراتها على تقييم الأداء المالي والمتمثل في: القيمة الاقتصادية المضافة (EVA)، ومعدل العائد على الأصول (ROA)، ومعدل ربحية السهم الواحد (EPS)، إضافة إلى القيمة السوقية للسهم (MV) كمتغيرات تابعة، ومنافع الموظفين – المنافع قصيرة الأجل والمنافع طويلة الأجل استخدمت كمتغيرات مستقلة. وتم فحص فرضيات الدراسة للبيانات المالية المنشورة لخمسة عشرة شركة مساهمة عامة للمدة المقدرة بعشرة سنوات (2011-2020)، واعتمدت الدراسة طريقة السلاسل الزمنية المقطعية (Panel Data) كأسلوباً احصائياً. حيث كانت أهم النتائج الرئيسية لهذه الدراسة في: (1) وجود تأثير إيجابي لمنافع الموظفين "قصيرة وطويلة الأجل" مجتمعة على كل من القيمة الاقتصادية المضافة، ومعدل العائد على الأصول، ومعدل ربحية السهم الواحد، (2) وجود تأثير إيجابي على القيمة الاقتصادية المضافة لكل من منافع الموظفين طويلة وقصيرة الأجل كلاً على حدا، (3) لا يوجد تأثير للمنافع قصيرة الأجل على كل من معدل العائد على الأصول، ومعدل ربحية السهم على التوالي، (4) تؤثر المنافع طويلة الأجل ايجابياً على كل من معدل العائد على الأصول، ومعدل ربحية السهم، إضافة إلى ذلك، بينت النتائج عدم وجود أثر لمنافع الموظفين على سعر السهم السوقي. وبناءً على نتائج الدراسة أوصت الدراسة بمجموعة من التوصيات، أهمها: (1) ضرورة توسيع الالتزام بتطبيق المعيار الدولي في جميع جوانبه لما لذلك من تأثير إيجابي على الأداء المالي، (2) ضرورة إلزام الشركات على التصنيف الواضح والمباشر للمنافع والنفقات التي تخص الموظفين، (3) تبني خطط جديدة في تقديم المنافع للموظفين، وتوسيع قاعدة هذه المنافع قد يؤدي إلى رفع أداء الشركات مما يعود على الملاك والموظفين والمستثمرين بالفائدة.
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    وجهة نظر المرشدين الزراعيين في منظومة الارشاد الزراعي في مجال الثروة الحيوانية
    (AL-Quds University, 2006-09-13) أيمن تيسير محمد ياسين; Ayman Tyseer Mohammad Yaseen; جمال ابو عمر; د. عبد الحميد البرغوثي; د. عايد سلامة
    The objectives of this study were to investigate the view point of extension agents about the degree of achievement of fulfillment the objectives and tasks of extension by extension agents. Also to investigate the sheep and goats extension agents' viewpoint on several aspects related to extension such as performance of extension agents and problems facing the animal extension sector and the relation between extension agents and the other factors such as gender, education, residence, age, experience in service and training. As well-constructed questionnaire was employed in the study. All of extension agents in the field of sheep and goats were interviewed. The study showed the low performance of extension agents as low percent of them had previous training in the field. The study showed a strong relation between degree of achievements and extension agents performance. Similar relation was observed between the low performance of extension agents and the obstacles facing the extension sectors. Gender has no effect on performance of extension agents. Similar trend was observed in the relation between performance and ages, experience and previous training. Several recommendations were given by the study, among these; more research is needed in relation to improve performance of agricultural agents. The study showed that training should be made to fit needs for the extension agents. Number of extension agents in the field of sheep and goats should be maximized as possible.
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    العوامل المرتبطة بالسلوك الاتصالي الارشادي للزراع في محافظات جنوب غزة
    (AL-Quds University, 2005-04-26) محمد خليل سليمان موسى; Mohammed Khaleel Suleiman Mousa; حاتم الشنطي; د. ابراهيم حمد; د. يحيى زهران
    This research has mainly aimed at identifying the factors that connected with the communicative extension behavior for the farmers in the southern govern orates of Gaza Strip – Palestine. Generally, the research focuses on tow main objectives: 1- Recognizing the most important characteristics and traits of the farmers of in the southern governorates of Gaza strip.2- Studying the connecting relationships among the personal social, economic, communicative, psychological function of the farmers from one side, and their participation on the extension farming activities from the other side.This research includes five chapters. The first one is an introduction to the research problem, objectives and justifications. The second chapter presented the theoretical framework. It has discussed some proceeded studies that have a connection with the research. The third chapter presented the study methodology which includes the terms of the study, the study geographical and human domains, the study universe and sample, the study variables, data collection tools, as well as, the used statistical tools. The fourth chapter concerned with the research results and their discussion. Fin all the fifth chapter presented the study summary and recommendations. The research includes fifteen independent variables and the sequent one that is the dependent variable: communicative extension farming behavior for the farmer. The study was in conducted in Gaza Strip southern govern orates which are Rafah and Khan Younis. A complete random sample consists of 150 farmers representing 3.3% of the total farmers in the two govern orates based on the statistics of Ministry of Agriculture for the year 2003. Questionnaire was used for collecting the study data from the sample farmers by using personal interview techniques. The data collection was taken place from June to September 2003. Percentages, frequencies, Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Multiple and Partial Regression Analysis were used as statistical tools. The study has reached several important findings which can be summarized as follows: 1- The research results clarify that the farmers, ages are among (25–60) years. The arithmetic mean is 49, 9 years; the standard deviation is eleven years. 2- The results clarify the numbers of the farmers' family members are among (1–15) individuals. The arithmetic mean is eight individuals, the standard deviation is 4, 2 individuals. 3- The results clarify the sons of workers on farming are about (1–8) individuals.The arithmetic mean is 2, 3 individuals, the standard deviation is 1, 2 individuals. 4- The results clarify the educated sons of the farmers are about (0 – 15) individual. The standard deviation 2, 85 individuals, the arithmetic mean is 2, 9 individuals. 5- The research results clarify that the farmers have (1–7) acres, the arithmetic mean is 3, 3 acres, and standard deviation is 1, 9 acres. 6- The results clarify that the farmer have (0 – 8) animals. The standard deviation is 2, 4 animals, the arithmetic mean 2, 2 animals. 7- The results clarify that the farmers has (1-8) farming machines. The standard deviation is 1, 3 machines, the arithmetic mean is 2, 8 machines. 8- The results clarify that the net yearly income is (5 – 50) thousands shekels. The standard deviation is 1040 shekels; the arithmetic mean is 15140 shekels. 9- The results clarify that the farmers' attitudes towards the extension work is 9.34 degrees. The standard deviation is 5, 8 degrees. 10- The results clarify that the farmers' attitudes towards the farming work is 39.1 degrees. The standard deviation is 4.9 degrees. 11- The results clarify that the arithmetic average of the farmers' attitudes towards the other farmers is 30 degrees. The standard deviation is 3.3 degrees. 12- The results clarify that the number of the farmers' resources of the farming information which the farmers communicates with is about (1–5) resources. The standard deviation is 1.3 resources; the arithmetic mean is 3.8 resources. 13- The results clarify that the number of the farmers that apply the new farming practices are seventy three farmers, the percentage is 87, 9%, while as the farmers that not apply the new farming practices are ten farmers, the percentage is 12.1%