Pharmacy

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    The Effect of Ephedra Foeminea Extract as an Antimicrobial and Antifungal Agent
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-09-10) Abu Jazar, Hanan Hamad ; Alomar, Manar Zeyad ; Almasri, Rania Mohammed ; Hammad, Rawan Mohammed ; Musallam, Tasneem Jehad ; Ghraiz, Tasneem Khaled ; Attalah, Akram ; El-Shanti, Amjad ; Mezher, Ismail
    Drugs derived from natural sources play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. In many developing countries, traditional medicine is an essential part of primary healthcare systems (Abdallah, 2011). Due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, it is essential to investigate new drugs with lesser resistance especially ones that can be derived from natural resources like plants. Ephedra is likely one of the oldest medicinal plants that are still currently in use. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of some ephedra species have been noticed in recent years (ZHANG Ben-Mei et al,2018). The aim of the study is to observe and understand the effects of E. foeminea extracts as antimicrobial and antifungal agents. It is an experimental study; four different types of bacteria including, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA, and Escherichia coli as well as two different types of fungi including, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans were used as test microorganisms. Maceration extraction technique (William P. Jones,2012) for the dried stem of E. foeminea will be used by methanol / water 90/10 for 2 days (Ali Parsaeimehr et el,2010). Three concentrations of the extract will be used on 30 plates for each type of microorganism in the laboratories of the University of Palestine. Antimicrobial activity will be tested by using plate methods in which a variable diameter of a growth inhibition zone in most types of bacteria will appear. The MIC values may also be evaluated using the broth serial dilution method according to standard methods (CLSI, 2012).
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    Relationship between Diabetes Type-II and Calcium Ions Concentration in Saliva in Gaza Strip: Retrospective Cohort Study
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-09-10) Lubbad, Mohammed ; Shamali, Mahmoud ; Skaik, Mahmoud ; Alkhundakji, Nouraldin ; Ayash, Moataz ; Awadallah, Abdelrahman ; Alshanti, Amjad
    Saliva contains an amount of calcium concentration; when increased it can play a role in plaque formation on the teeth and can cause the periodontitis disease. Therefore, most diabetic patients show loss of their teeth. In this study, the aim is to investigate the relationship between diabetic disease type-2 and calcium concentration in saliva among diabetic patients in the Gaza strip. A retrospective cohort study will be designed to measure the calcium concentration in the saliva of a random sample of uncontrolled diabetic patients (n=150) and controlled diabetic patients (n=150). The HA1C level in blood will be reviewed in the records of diabetic patients in the diabetic clinic in ten primary health care centers that belonged to the Ministry of Health of Palestinian Authority in Gaza strip governorates in order to follow up and classify conditions of the patients as controlled and uncontrolled. In addition, HA1C in blood and Ca++ level in 2ml saliva will be examined during the conduction of the study for each sample unit (either controlled or uncontrolled patients) in the health laboratory of University of Palestine.
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    Synthesis of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles Using Natural Phytochemical as Antineoplastic Therapy
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-09-10) Atalla, Akram ; Al tawil, Sana ; Al-Agha, Hala ; Radwan, Samaher ; Abed, Mahmoud
    Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, and was estimated to account for 9.6 million deaths in 2018, according to the WHO. To reduce the significant disability, suffering and deaths caused by cancer worldwide, effective and affordable programs in early diagnosis, screening, treatment, and palliative care are needed. Treatment options may include surgery, medicines and/or radiotherapy. In our research, we try to find a new way to treat cancer naturally. Toxic chemicals are utilized in several of the processes for production of nanoparticles, either in the form of reducing agents to reduce various metal salts to their corresponding nanoparticles, or as stabilizing agents to prevent agglomeration of nanoparticles. These toxic chemicals are powerful reducing agents that are currently used to produce gold and other metallic nanoparticles. These reducing agents are highly toxic to living organisms and to the environment. The purpose of the present experimental study is to prepare biocompatible Gold nanoparticles through 3 months, which contain the phytochemical, with high purity as anti-tumor therapy for destroying of cancer cells. Gold nanoparticles will be synthesized by a “green” procedure in University of Palestine laboratories. Then it will be internalized in cancerous cells to facilitate in detecting and damaging cancerous cells. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake part of this study will be carried on cancerous cells in Rabbits. Gold nanoparticles will be prepared and applied on cancer tissue of ten rabbits. Then, the tissue culture will be checked out by pathologist. The results of the current may indicate that these non-toxic gold nanoparticles can serve as excellent detectable and damageable agent for cancerous cells; it will be a novel approach toward tumor damaging through Nano-pharmaceuticals.
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    The Effect of L- Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Dl-Alpha – Tocopherol Acetate (Vitamin E) and White Grape Seed Oil on Colorful Melanin Concentrations Using Synthetic Melanin
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-09-10) Abu Hanieh, Areej ; Hassouneh, Sondos ; Shtayah, Hani
    Vitamin C is used as an antioxidant to treat UV-induced skin pigmentation disease. When combining it with Vitamin E, its antioxidant effect increases by 4 folds. Grape-seed-oil contains phenols like catechin which express a powerful antioxidant effect and a whitening effect. Combining the three agents together gives a synergistic effect that magnifies the decreasing colorful melanin concentrations. Objectives: To determine the effect of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and grape-seed-oil on melanin concentrations separately then determine the synergistic effect for three ingredients together. Synthetic melanin calibration’s curve was constructed using spectrophotometer; then Vitamin C, Vitamin E and grape-seed-oil were added to the melanoma cells. Cell viability was measured after 72 hours using hemocytometer, then different concentrations of the agents and its combinations were added to the synthetic melanin solutions in order to measure melanin concentrations using spectrophotometer. The combination of the three ingredients (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and grape-seed-oil) achieved an extremely statistically significant decreasing in melanin concentration. The combinations that contain grape-seed-oil showed higher effect on melanin concentration reduction than the combinations without grape-seed-oil; Vitamin C and Vitamin E separately did not show any significant reduction on melanin concentrations and grape-seed-oil showed a statistically significant effect on decreasing melanin concentrations. The combinations of the three ingredients together (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and grape-seed-oil) achieved the lowest p-value (Extremely statistical significant) and the lowest melanin concentration, while Grape-seed-oil was the only ingredient that achieved statistically significant decrease in melanin concentrations.
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    Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extract on Bacteria Species
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Abu Khalta, Alaa
    Spices have been used for many centuries by various cultures to enhance the flavor and aroma of our foods. Our ancestors have also recognized the usage of spices in food preservation and in the treatment of clinical ailments. However, there are several reports on the development of antibiotic resistance in diverse bacterial pathogens (Gold, S.G. and Moellering, R.C.,1996). Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli resides in human intestines and can cause lower urinary tract infections, cholecystitis and septicemia (Benhassaini et al., 2003; Benjilali et al.,1986). Different antibiotics exercise their inhibitory activity on different pathogenic organisms (Chanda and Rakholiya, 2011). Multiple drug resistance in human pathogenic microorganisms has developed due to indiscriminate use of commercial antimicrobial drugs that are commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases. The development of antibiotic resistance is multifactorial; this includes the specific nature of the relationship of bacteria to antibiotics, the usage of antibacterial agent, host characteristics, and environmental factors. This study has forced scientists to search for new antimicrobial chemotherapeutic substances from various sources. However, the cost of production of synthetic drugs is high and they produce adverse effects compared to plant derived drugs (Abiramasundari et al., 2011).