- ItemClassification Model for Selecting Appropriate Wastewater Treatment Technology Compatible with the Community Capacity(Al-Quds University, 2023-01-18) Ibrahim Mohammad Yousef Tomizeh; إبراهيم محمد يوسف طميزه; تعتبر معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي قضية بيئية رئيسية لحماية صحة الإنسان في العديد من البلدان في العالم وخاصة في البلدان النامية القاحلة وشبه القاحلة حيث مصادر المياه تعد نادرة ومصدر للصراع بين الأنظمة والتيارات السياسية. قد توفر أنظمة معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي المستدامة مصدرًا مستداما للمياه إذا تمت مراقبتها وإدارتها بشكل صحيح ووجود منظمات وطنية ومحلية تعمل على مراقبة خدمات المياه بانتظام وأن يكون لديها مؤشرات مخصصة لقياس فعالية الخدمة، وتتابع منظمات أخرى الخدمة بعد التنفيذ "مراقبة ما بعد التنفيذ". إلا انه لا توجد عملية واضحة لتقييم واختيار التكنولوجيا المناسبة بما يتناسب مع قدرة المجتمع واحتياجاته. على هذا النحو، أدت المعرفة المحدودة لصانعي القرار إلى اختيار حلول غير مستدامة حيث أن 65٪ من المشاريع في البلدان النامية تفشل في مراحلها الأولى. ومع ذلك، تشير العديد من الدراسات والبحوث إلى أن التركيز ودراسة المجتمع يزيد من ملكية المجتمع لهذه المشاريع. تهدف الرسالة إلى تطوير نموذج تصنيف لمحطات معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي ليكون متوافقًا مع قدرة المجتمع لتقليل الفشل في أنظمة الصرف الصحي. في هذا البحث، سيتم استخدام منهجية (بوعبيد ولويس) بناءً على تحليل ثمانية عوامل قدرة رئيسية لتقييم وتقدير المجتمع ومعالجة مياه الصرف الصحي التقنيات واختيار أنسب التقنيات التي تتوافق مع المجتمع. مع هذا النموذج، سيكون لدى صانعي القرار القدرة على دراسة المشكلة وقياسها وفقًا لمتطلباتهم. فشلت معظم تقنيات الصرف الصحي بعد فترة وجيزة بسبب المراقبة السيئة بعد الانتهاء من تنفيذ المشروع بسبب عدم معالجة اللامبالاة في خصائص المجتمع وعامل القدرة. يحاول العديد من الباحثين العثور على أفضل ما يناسب اختيار تقنية الملاءمة، ولكن بعد اختيار التقنيات، تظهر العديد من الخيارات وبنفس المستوى تؤدي إلى اختيار العديد من التقنيات غير المحددة، مما يؤدي إلى عدم وجود نظام معالجة مستدام، في هذا البحث، ستؤدي بعض المعلمات إلى تضاف لتقليل الخيارات حسب احتياجات المياه المعالجة ومصدرها. يؤدي الامتداد الجغرافي وقلة عدد السكان في الأراضي الفلسطينية إلى تحدي مرهق أمام الحكومات لإنشاء محطات معالجة مركزية لمياه الصرف الصحي في مجتمعاتها، بالإضافة إلى أن 65٪ من الأراضي الفلسطينية هي منطقة ج حيث يُحظر إنشاء محطات معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي المركزية. علاوة على ذلك، فإن الافتقار إلى شبكات الصرف الصحي والأزمات الاقتصادية تؤدي إلى اعتبار محطات معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي ذات تكاليف التشغيلية والصيانة المنخفضة، فضلاً عن الأراضي والطاقة الأقل استهلاكًا مثل عملية الحمأة المُنشطة، هي الخيارات الأنسب حتى تتمكن هذه المجتمعات بالقدرة على إدارة وتشغيل هذه المحطات.Wastewater treatment and sanitation is a major issue in protected environment and health in many countries in the world especially in the developing arid and semi-arid countries where water sources in all countries are rare and a source of conflict. Sustainable wastewater treatment systems may provide sustainable none conventional water source if operated and managed properly. There are national and local organizations work on monitoring water services regularly, assignee indicators to measure the effectiveness of the service, other organizations follow up the service after implementation "post-implementation monitoring". As there is no clear process for evaluating and selecting the appropriate technology commensurate with the community's capacity and needs. As such, the limited knowledge of decision makers has led to choosing unsustainable solutions as 65% of projects in developing countries fail in their early stages. However, many studies and research indicated that focusing and studying the community increases the community ownership of these projects by including the community capabilities and needs in the stage of choosing the technologies. Thesis aims to develop classification model for wastewater treatment plants to be compatible with community capacity to reduce the failure in sanitation systems. With this model, the decision makers will have the ability to examine and scale the problem according to their requirement.in this research (Bouabid and Louis) methodology will be use based on analysis eight main capacity factors to evaluate and asses the community and wastewater treatment technologies and chose the most appropriate technology that compatible with the community. Most of sanitation technologies failed after a short period because of the bad monitoring after implementation of the project finalized because of not tacking inconsideration the community characteristics, and capacity factor. Several researchers try to find the best fit of choosing a propriety technology but after selecting the technologies, many options appear and with the same level leading to a selection of many none specific technologies, leading to none sustainable treatment system, in this research some parameters will be added to reduce options depends on the needs of the treated water and the its source. The geographical extension and the sparse population of the Palestinian territories lead to an exhausting challenge for governments to establish centralized wastewater treatment plants for its communities; in addition, 65% of Palestinian territories are area C where it forbidden to establish centralized WWTPs. Moreover, the lack of sewage networks and the economic crises lead to consider the WWTPs with low operating and maintenance costs, as well as the least consuming land and energy, are the most appropriate options so that these communities have the ability to manage and operate these stations.
- ItemTreatment of Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW) Using Variable Coagulants with super Flocculants(Al-Quds University, 2018-05-06) Jamila Zhran Ibrahim Zhran; جميلة زهران إبراهيم زهرانOlive mill wastewater (OMWW) management has been a major issue of environmental concern for olive oil producing countries. In Palestine, the problem of untreated OMWW discharge is urgent. Several hundred thousand cubic meters of untreated WW is discharged into open areas (wadies) and cesspools whereas the solid waste (olive husk) is dumped into lands nearby the olive mills without treatment. This increases the risk of contaminating soil, surface water resources, and groundwater aquifers. The negative environmental impact of OMWW is attributed to poor biodegradation and toxicity of polyphenols present in OMWW. In this study, sample of OMWW were collected in October 2016 from Al-Qubayba village in the middle part of west bank (north western of Jerusalem), the level of pollution and their impact on the environment has been determined by measuring physical and chemical properties of OMWW such as: COD, pH, EC, TDS, TSS, TPs. The results revealed that the OMWW have a high risk on environment due to the high phenols concentration that exceeds the maximum allowable limits for discharge to environment or to the sanitary sewer system according to Palestinian standards. The treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMWW) by means of coagulation–flocculation coupling various inorganic materials in different dose and organic polyacrylamide (PAM) was investigated. With respect to their efficiency in terms of total phenols removal and the effect of OMWW application on soil water drop penetration time test (WDPT).
- ItemGeochemical Provenance of Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Case Study: Wadi Al-Ghar(Al-Quds University, 2020-08-23) DOHA MAHMOUD MOHAMMAD AWWAD; ضحى محمود محمد عوادSedimentary rocks are considered as a historical record of the different conditions that pass through the region and its composition may be inferred from the development of origin and tectonic setting. Sedimentary rocks are influenced by many factors that create sediments such as chemical weather, climate, and transport. To understand and define the sedimentation environment and its sources, it is important to study geochemical properties. The purpose of this study is to monitor the transport of sediments from one area to another due to surface runoff operations in wadi Al-Ghar area, amount of rain that falls on the area. This study was conducted by estimating the rainfall amounts, then studying the chemical and physical properties of the moving sediments. Where wadi Al-Ghar region is exposed to deep floods from the surrounding areas, the study area was varied in elevation in the range of (400–1000) meters, the slope for the running water was 0.02. These floods affect the geological formation and the arrangement of sand dunes, which are basically sediments are moving from upstream to downstream area. For the methodology we have 48 sediment and runoff samples were collected during two years (2017-2018). The process of collecting samples was in two stages according to Palestine climate wet season (April-May) and dry season (Oct-Nov). Samples point were specified (X,Y,Z) at different altitudes in depth, as it took sediment samples along the stream of the channel more than once to compare the results with each other. The study was divided into several sections: quantities (rainfall) of precipitation, chemical and physical properties of sediments that moved, Rare earth element, isotopes (δ18O, δ13 C), organic carbon and total Nitrogen of both sediments and runoff. Results revealed that the wadi divided into five zones based on the names used in that region: Ma’aza, Am-Gresh, Arab rashayda, wadi al-masyada, Confluence of all wadie’s and Downstream. Based on the geological layers exposed in the study area and depending on the ages in which they were formed, the sedimentary rocks in the study area are similar to a part of the sedimentary rocks that formed in the late Cretaceous period, especially the Cenomanian and Toronian periods. Which covers the Hebron Mountains, and this refers to the erosion factors that were exposed to it, which led to its transmission through surface runoff and then deposition in the form of sedimentary dunes in wadi Al-Ghar. Furthermore it ; the results showed that the sediments are presently moving in the same area, and only a small part is transport to the central regions due to the surrounding influences. It is transmitted through various erosion factors such as slope, soil composition, rocks, geological shape and the difficult environmental conditions that the area is exposed to. Also, the results of the trace elements and the main elements confirm that the type of sediments present is dolomite which contains a high percentage of the following elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na), while the REE results were very few> 0.01. This was attributed to the inability to transport the elements by runoff. Surface and lack of a source for high sedimentary masses. Each of the isotopes O18 ((-2.97_ -4.17), δC13 (-6.24_ -2.97) confirmed the presence of limestone in the sediments. However, the values of TOC and TIC and TNb differ between the samples that were taken due to the different sources and their diversity. On the other hand, it was important to study weathering factors on sediments to understand their effect. It was observed that the ratio of CIW and PIW had a positive and disallowed index of Al motion, as opposed to the proportion of WIP >100 which had a negative index and allowed Al to move. Based on the results, the recommendations are summarized to install a meteorological station to monitor climate change and to take samples of surface runoff during the period of flash flood, while maintaining flow data for continuous periods to monitor erosion and sediment transport in the valley and to collect rainwater to measure rainfall quantities and analyze its chemical and physical properties. In addition to taking samples of sediments for a longer period along the valley to determine its characteristics and modes of movement.
- ItemThe fate of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Irrigated with Raw Wastewater in Palestine: A Case Study of Al-Far’a Area(Al-Quds University, 2020-01-04) Mahmoud Khader Abed Driaat; محمود خضر عبد دريعاتWastewater, and industrial wastewater, is known to be a major source of pollution with heavy metals. The discharge of raw wastewater to the environment without any advance treatment creates the potential for heavy metals contamination to the nearby agricultural lands. Root and fruit vegetables are important kinds of vegetables in the human food diet. These kind of vegetables are rich in vitamins and nutrients. However, root and fruit vegetables should not contain heavy metals over a range of concentrations, which could pose potential health risk to the consumers. Contamination with heavy metals is considered an environmental threat, as these metals are toxic even at low concentrations. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals concentration in root and fruit vegetables in the central Jordan Valley region in Palestine, which includes Nablus east, and Al-Jiftlik village in the West Bank. Thus, vegetable samples, particularly Potato, Zucchini, Eggplants, and Onions, had been collected from different farms, and analysed for different heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Cr, Co, Cd, Mn, Ni, V, and Ba) by using ICP-MS. For some samples, the results were found to be exceeding WHO/FAO permissible limit for human consumption, while other samples were found to be within the safe allowable limit. Cr was found to be the highest in concentration while Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, and Cd were the lowest. Ba and V concentrations varied between high in some samples and low in other, then comes Pb that showed a concertation close to the safe limit of the (WHO). Soil samples in addition to water samples had been also analysed for their content of heavy metals in order to correlate the environmental factors to heavy metal contamination. However, most of concentrations were below the limit set by WHO/FAO and it was hard to build a relationship of soil/water to plant transfer of heavy metals. It was noticed that the Ni, Mn, Co, as an essential elements were found to be very low concentrations in soil, and water samples, and thus their concentration were low in most of the vegetables samples. Cd showed a very low concentration, Cd was very low and even below the detection levels in some of water/soil and vegetables samples. Pb was very low in most of the soil/water samples, while the concentration of Pb in the vegetable samples were little below the permission level, which suggest that even at a low concentration of Pb in soil/water system, the vegetables were able to accumulate Pb in their fruits. Thus it was concluded that the contamination found in the root samples and fruit samples vegetables samples was related to the contamination caused by the discharge of raw wastewater to the environment as the case of Wadi Al-Bathan in Al-Fra' catchment in the central Jordan Valley.
- ItemProduction of Spirulina platensis using Cheap Local Resources in Palestine(Al-Quds University, 2022-05-07) Imad Walid Abed Alrahman Aljabali; عماد وليد عبد الرحمن الجباليIn this study five main experiments were used with different treatments to evaluate the possibility of the cheap aquaculture water such as Tilapia effluents to be used for Spirulinaproduction, and to test if solutions made by plant ash be used for Spirulinaproduction, also if brackish water and mining water have a good impact on Spirulina production, and to create a medium composed of cheap chemicals and fertilizers to be used for Spirulina cultivation, and to test if a mix made from local components be useful to produce Spirulina or not. All experiments were monitored through growth and dry weight measurements including chemical and physical characteristics for the samples with a comparison with Zarrouk medium as a reference used for each experiment alone while all experiments were done for a period of 21 days to find the best media type that stay longer for commercial purposes. In all experiments, pH values were between 8 and 11, and EC was between 9.8-30 mS/cm, while temperature was at 30 ᵒC and 35 ᵒC, and light was at 1500 and 5000 Lux for 16h light and 8h dark. The first experiment was done to evaluate the possibility of using wastewater from Tilapia-fish ponds in ADS to cultivate Spirulina. In this experiment, both treatments began with low concentrations, and the initial absorbance around 0.5 at 880nm. ZM tripled after 8 days while FW doubled in the same period and both treatments stayed at the same level till the end of the experiment. This experiment showed that Spirulina can grow in FW in a similar way like ZM with a price of 0.0015 ILS/L for FW compared to 8.9625 ILS/L for ZM. The second experiment was done through running treatments of fish wastewater, diluted brackish water, plant ash solution, and a mix of them. In this experiment, all treatments began with low concentrations as in experiment one with absorbance around 0.6 at 880nm and most of it tripled after 14 days, and ZM was the lowest one among all; so, from this experiment FW, diluted BW, PAS 3% or a mix of it could be used to cultivate Spirulina with a very cheap price compared to ZM. The third experiment was conducted to evaluate the same components as in experiment two with some modification and addition of new treatments such as mining water and creating new chemical mediums as IMJ and IMJ-1. In this experiment, all treatments began with high concentration with absorbance range between 1.6-1.9 at 880nm for all types. ZM and IMJ were the best types among all other treatments. FW stayed at the same level for the first week and began to grow with fluctuation curve till the end of the experiment. IMJ with a price of 3.66 ILS/L is lower than ZM and could be a good alternative source. The fourth experiment was run at the same time of experiment five. It was a comparison between ZM and IMJ-2. In this experiment, both treatments began with a moderate concentration with absorbance reading of 1.25 at 880nm. ZM doubled nearly after 14 days while IMJ-2 raised by 1.76 times at the same period. IMJ-2 was better than ZM till day 10 and a clear difference shown after that. IMJ-2 with a price of 1.38 ILS/L is lower than ZM and could be a very good cheap alternative source. The fifth experiment was a comparison between ZM, FW, and the following types FW:BW (9:1), FW:MW (9:1), FW:PAS-3% (9:1), FW:IMJ-1 (9:1), and a mix composed of FW:(BW+MW+PAS-3%+IMJ-1) (9:1). In this experiment, all treatments began with moderate concentrations with absorbance around 1.25 at 880nm. ZM and Mix were the best types, while ZM, Mix, and FW:IMJ-1 took a similar behavior until day 10. According to the results of the dry weight we found that it was not representative for the growth of Spirulina, and the reason is still unclear. All treatments that used in this study had lower cost than Zarrouk medium and with some optimization its’ quality could be better. The main result that was obtained from all the experiments in this study is the ability of Spirulina to grow within a wide range of chemical parameters with a cheaper price. Therefore, this study recommends the use of water from fish farming in the production of spirulina after its examination.