- ItemSalicylhydroxamic acid based azo dyes, synthesis, characterization, and properties(Al-Quds University, 2023-06-13) Hala Ramzi Mohammad Alsheibat; هالة رمزي محمد الشعيباتThe synthesis and characterization of a novel azo dye derived from naphthionic acid and salicylhydroxamic acid are presented in this research. The synthesis process involves the diazo coupling reaction between naphthionic acid and salicylhydroxamic acid, forming the azo dye. The chemical structure and purity of the synthesized dye are confirmed using various characterization techniques, including ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The properties of the newly synthesized azo dye, such as color, solubility, reactivity, and antimicrobial activity are thoroughly investigated. The dye exhibits a unique color profile and solubility in polar solvents. The reactivity of the dye allows for potential modifications and derivatizations to enhance its versatility. This research provides valuable insights into the synthesis, characterization, and properties of the novel azo dye, offering prospects for its utilization in various applications. The main result showed that the azo dye had an antifungal activity but three types of bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to the dye. Also, from the calculations, the pka was 3.9and the dye could be used as a chemical indicator.In addition, the prepared dye was investigated as an acid-base indicator for its effect in titrimetric analysis using acid-base titration techniques. In basic media, the color changed from pink to orange. The dye acted as an active acid-base indicator, and the color change occurred in the pH range (5-8).
- ItemEffect of milk thisle (Silybum marianum) seed flour on chemical, microbial and sensory properties of soy protein-plant based meat(Al-Quds University, 2023-08-27) Shifaa Ali Mahmoud Abu Atwan; شفاء علي محمود أبوعطوانThis study was conducted to investigate the effect of milk thistle seed flour on microbial, chemical and sensory properties of soy plant-based meat analogue. Three formulas for the soy protein plant-based meats were created, each of which had a different proportion of milk thistle seed flour (MTSF) and wheat flour (WT): Sample 1 contained 28% MTSF, Sample 2 contained 14% MTSF and 14% WF, and Sample 3 contained 28% WF. Microbial results illustrate that sample containing 28% MTSF exhibited high total plate counts (8±1 CFU/g) compared to other samples at the initial period, but after six months of storage, the same sample exhibited low counts (1±1 CFU/g). The highest yeast and mold count was observed in sample 3, which contains 28% MTSF (3±1.4 CFU/g) in the sixth month of storage. During the six months of freezing storage, coliform counts in all samples tested positive and varied from 2 to 7.67 CFU/g. Meat analogue samples that contain 14% MTSF have a significantly high (P< 0.05) coliform count at the initial period. Overall, all counts decreased significantly during the storage period. The chemical composition results illustrate that soy plant-based meat analogues containing MTSF had lower moisture and carbohydrate content, whereas they had higher protein, fat ash, and crude fiber than soy plant-based meats containing WF. During a frozen storage period, there is an unnoticeable decrease in the protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and ash content of all meat analogue samples. Additionally, samples that contain 28% MTSF show an increase in moisture content of 0.43% after six months of storage. While moisture content decreased during 6 months frozen storage in both samples 2 and 3. The meat analogue samples with 0% MTSF after six months of storage had the highest peroxide value (PV) recorded. PV values of this sample was increased from 0.65 mEq/g at initial time to 1.70 mEq/g at six month of storage period. On other hand, the highest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances )TBARs ( value was reported in meat analogue samples containing 0% MTSF during storage. TBARs values of this sample increased from 0.21mg /kg at initial time to 0.27 mg/kg at sixth month of storage period. PV and TBARS levels increased noticeably with storage time. Overall, panelists’ in the sensory analysis presented that soy plant based meat analogue containing 0% and 14% of MTSF had better sensory properties than soy plant based meat analogue containing 28% of MTSF.
- ItemEffect of Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)) on Selected Quality Indicators of Virgin Olive Oil from Palestine(Al-Quds University, 2023-05-20) Ahmad "Mhammad Ali" Qrinawi; أحمد قريناويThis study's objective is to assess how olive fruit flies' infestation affects various olive oil quality indicators, including antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, Acidity peroxide value, K232, and K270. Olive fruit flies' punctures on the fruits that had an active infestation could be seen. In comparison to healthy oil samples (from olive fruits not attacked by the fly), the study's findings showed an increase in the acidity , peroxide, and K values (K232 and K270) of olive oil from samples of olive fruits. This suggests that an olive fly infestation has caused a decrease in the quality of olive oil. This is explained by the accelerated oxidation and hydrolytic degradation, which are encouraged by having exit holes that allow oxygen and microorganisms to affect the olive pulp. The results also revealed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of olive oils made from unhealthy olive fruits were lower than those made from healthy fruits, which further suggests that the oil is of lower quality. These polyphenolic compounds act as antioxidants and are crucial to the stability and shelf life of olive oil. Similar to this, a decline in the antioxidant activities of olive oils from unhealthy fruits (reflected by FRAP and DPPH assays) also indicated a decline in the olive oil's quality. This suggests that, in the event of an olive fly attack, the category of olive oil may change. For example, oil from unhealthy fruits may be downgraded from extra version to version olive oil.
- ItemA new approach to Drug Delivery using E-chgarette(Al-Quds University, 2023-05-06) Hadeel Abd rahman Mohammad Ikbariah; هديل عبدالرحمن محمد اكباريةThis study aimed to explore the potential use of e-cigarettes as a delivery method for the drug apomorphine, which is commonly used to treat patients with Parkinson's disease. The traditional method of administering apomorphine is through subcutaneous injection, which can be painful and difficult for patients. Therefore, finding alternative methods of delivering the drug is essential. In this study, a vacuum system was used to mimic inhalation and measure the concentration of apomorphine in the inhaled vapor. The drug mixture was prepared by dissolving apomorphine in methanol and then mixing it with Eliquid. HPLC analysis was conducted on cotton soaked with the collected vapor to determine the apomorphine concentration. Results showed that the concentration of apomorphine in the vapor increased with the number of inhalations and with increasing concentrations of apomorphine in the E-liquid. These findings suggest that e-cigarettes could be a promising alternative method for delivering apomorphine and other pharmaceutical drugs. Further research is necessary to explore the potential clinical applications of this approach.
- ItemUrtica Dioica leaf extract phase behavior and biochemical composition(Al-Quds University, 2023-05-20) Afaf Ibrahim Abuhilal; عفاف إبراهيم محمد أبوهلالUrtica dioica, also known as stinging nettle, is a perennial herbaceous plant with a long history of use for its medicinal and nutritional properties. The biochemical composition and phase behavior of Urtica dioica leaves extract were investigated in this thesis. The leaves were found to be rich in bioactive compounds such as Polyphenols, Flavonoids, and carotenoids, which possess antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. The phase behavior of the Urtica dioica leaves extract was studied by constructing a Pseudo Ternary phase diagram to determine the regions of microemulsion. The Urtica dioica leaf extract dissolved in ethanol concentration of 1mg/ml was used as the oil phase and Tween 80 and Span 20 were used as surfactants. The total phenol content of the Urtica dioica leaf extract was analyzed to be 344 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per gram of extract, indicating the presence of a significant amount of phenol compounds. The Flavonoid content was determined to be 129.33 mg Catechin equivalents (CE) per gram of extract using a colorimetric assay. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of Urtica dioicaleaf extract was found to be 81.64%. The Urtica dioicaleaf extracted with methanol was examined using an HPLC device and the result was that it contained a group of compounds: Gallic acid, and Rutin. The extract showed no antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phase behavior of the Urtica dioicaleaf extract determined the formula of Microemulsion, which can be useful for making dosage forms and cosmetic formulations. Further research is needed to fully understand the potential applications of Urtica dioica leaves in the pharmaceutical and food industries, given their rich bioactive compound composition. نبات الأورتيكا دايويوكا، المعروفة أيضًا باسم القريص ، هي نبات عشبي معمر يتمتع بتاريخ طويل في الاستخدام لخصائصه الطبية والغذائية. في هذه الأطروحة التالية تمت دراسة التركيب الكيميائي وسلوك الطور لخلاصة أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا. تبين أن الأوراق غنية بالمركبات الحيوية مثل البوليفينولات والفلافونويدات والكاروتينويدات، التي تتمتع بخصائص مضادة للأكسدة ومضادة للالتهابات ومضادة للسرطان. تمت دراسة سلوك الطور لخلاصة أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا من خلال إعداد مخطط طوري ثنائي الأبعاد لتحديد مناطق الميكروإيملجن. تم استخدام خلاصة أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا المذابة في تركيز الإيثانول 1 ملغ/مل لتحضير الميكروإملجن. تم استخدام الزيت، واستخدمت توين 80 وسبان 20 كمتحولات سطحية. تم تحليل محتوى الفينول الكلي لخلاصة الأوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا ووجد أنه يعادل 344 ملغ من معادلة حمض الغاليك وهي (GAE) لكل غرام من الخلاصة، مشيرًا إلى وجود كمية كبيرة من المركبات الفينولية. تم تحديد أيضا محتوى الفلافونويد 129.33 ملغ من معادلة الكاتشين لكل غرام من الخلاصة لتحليل. تم حساب قدرة المستخلص النباتي للنبتة الأورتكا رايويوكا في تقليل كمية المواد المؤكسدة لتكون النتيجة 81% وهي نسبة عالية مقارنة بنباتات أخرى. التحليل المعتمد في تحليل الكثير من المستخلصات النباتية لفحص مستخلص الأورتيكا ديويكا المستخلصة بالميثانول وتبين أنها تحتوي على مجموعة من المركبات مثل حمض الغاليك والروتين. لم تظهر الخلاصة أي تأثير مضاد للبكتيريا ضد البكتيريا.وتم تحديد سلوك الطور لخلاصة أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا في صيغة الميكروإيملجن، والتي يمكن أن تكون مفيدة في تحضير أشكال الجرعات وتركيبات المستحضرات التجميلية. يتطلب إجراء بحوث إضافية لفهم الطبيعة الكاملة لتطبيقات أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا في صناعة الأدوية والأغذية، نظرًا لتركيبها الغني بالمركبات الحيوية.