Applied Industrial Technology


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 138
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    Effect of Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)) on Selected Quality Indicators of Virgin Olive Oil from Palestine
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-05-20) Ahmad "Mhammad Ali" Qrinawi; أحمد قريناوي
    This study's objective is to assess how olive fruit flies' infestation affects various olive oil quality indicators, including antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, Acidity peroxide value, K232, and K270. Olive fruit flies' punctures on the fruits that had an active infestation could be seen. In comparison to healthy oil samples (from olive fruits not attacked by the fly), the study's findings showed an increase in the acidity , peroxide, and K values (K232 and K270) of olive oil from samples of olive fruits. This suggests that an olive fly infestation has caused a decrease in the quality of olive oil. This is explained by the accelerated oxidation and hydrolytic degradation, which are encouraged by having exit holes that allow oxygen and microorganisms to affect the olive pulp. The results also revealed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of olive oils made from unhealthy olive fruits were lower than those made from healthy fruits, which further suggests that the oil is of lower quality. These polyphenolic compounds act as antioxidants and are crucial to the stability and shelf life of olive oil. Similar to this, a decline in the antioxidant activities of olive oils from unhealthy fruits (reflected by FRAP and DPPH assays) also indicated a decline in the olive oil's quality. This suggests that, in the event of an olive fly attack, the category of olive oil may change. For example, oil from unhealthy fruits may be downgraded from extra version to version olive oil.
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    A new approach to Drug Delivery using E-chgarette
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-05-06) Hadeel Abd rahman Mohammad Ikbariah; هديل عبدالرحمن محمد اكبارية
    This study aimed to explore the potential use of e-cigarettes as a delivery method for the drug apomorphine, which is commonly used to treat patients with Parkinson's disease. The traditional method of administering apomorphine is through subcutaneous injection, which can be painful and difficult for patients. Therefore, finding alternative methods of delivering the drug is essential. In this study, a vacuum system was used to mimic inhalation and measure the concentration of apomorphine in the inhaled vapor. The drug mixture was prepared by dissolving apomorphine in methanol and then mixing it with Eliquid. HPLC analysis was conducted on cotton soaked with the collected vapor to determine the apomorphine concentration. Results showed that the concentration of apomorphine in the vapor increased with the number of inhalations and with increasing concentrations of apomorphine in the E-liquid. These findings suggest that e-cigarettes could be a promising alternative method for delivering apomorphine and other pharmaceutical drugs. Further research is necessary to explore the potential clinical applications of this approach.
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    Urtica Dioica leaf extract phase behavior and biochemical composition
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-05-20) Afaf Ibrahim Abuhilal; عفاف إبراهيم محمد أبوهلال
    Urtica dioica, also known as stinging nettle, is a perennial herbaceous plant with a long history of use for its medicinal and nutritional properties. The biochemical composition and phase behavior of Urtica dioica leaves extract were investigated in this thesis. The leaves were found to be rich in bioactive compounds such as Polyphenols, Flavonoids, and carotenoids, which possess antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. The phase behavior of the Urtica dioica leaves extract was studied by constructing a Pseudo Ternary phase diagram to determine the regions of microemulsion. The Urtica dioica leaf extract dissolved in ethanol concentration of 1mg/ml was used as the oil phase and Tween 80 and Span 20 were used as surfactants. The total phenol content of the Urtica dioica leaf extract was analyzed to be 344 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per gram of extract, indicating the presence of a significant amount of phenol compounds. The Flavonoid content was determined to be 129.33 mg Catechin equivalents (CE) per gram of extract using a colorimetric assay. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of Urtica dioicaleaf extract was found to be 81.64%. The Urtica dioicaleaf extracted with methanol was examined using an HPLC device and the result was that it contained a group of compounds: Gallic acid, and Rutin. The extract showed no antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phase behavior of the Urtica dioicaleaf extract determined the formula of Microemulsion, which can be useful for making dosage forms and cosmetic formulations. Further research is needed to fully understand the potential applications of Urtica dioica leaves in the pharmaceutical and food industries, given their rich bioactive compound composition. نبات الأورتيكا دايويوكا، المعروفة أيضًا باسم القريص ، هي نبات عشبي معمر يتمتع بتاريخ طويل في الاستخدام لخصائصه الطبية والغذائية. في هذه الأطروحة التالية تمت دراسة التركيب الكيميائي وسلوك الطور لخلاصة أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا. تبين أن الأوراق غنية بالمركبات الحيوية مثل البوليفينولات والفلافونويدات والكاروتينويدات، التي تتمتع بخصائص مضادة للأكسدة ومضادة للالتهابات ومضادة للسرطان. تمت دراسة سلوك الطور لخلاصة أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا من خلال إعداد مخطط طوري ثنائي الأبعاد لتحديد مناطق الميكروإيملجن. تم استخدام خلاصة أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا المذابة في تركيز الإيثانول 1 ملغ/مل لتحضير الميكروإملجن. تم استخدام الزيت، واستخدمت توين 80 وسبان 20 كمتحولات سطحية. تم تحليل محتوى الفينول الكلي لخلاصة الأوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا ووجد أنه يعادل 344 ملغ من معادلة حمض الغاليك وهي (GAE) لكل غرام من الخلاصة، مشيرًا إلى وجود كمية كبيرة من المركبات الفينولية. تم تحديد أيضا محتوى الفلافونويد 129.33 ملغ من معادلة الكاتشين لكل غرام من الخلاصة لتحليل. تم حساب قدرة المستخلص النباتي للنبتة الأورتكا رايويوكا في تقليل كمية المواد المؤكسدة لتكون النتيجة 81% وهي نسبة عالية مقارنة بنباتات أخرى. التحليل المعتمد في تحليل الكثير من المستخلصات النباتية لفحص مستخلص الأورتيكا ديويكا المستخلصة بالميثانول وتبين أنها تحتوي على مجموعة من المركبات مثل حمض الغاليك والروتين. لم تظهر الخلاصة أي تأثير مضاد للبكتيريا ضد البكتيريا.وتم تحديد سلوك الطور لخلاصة أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا في صيغة الميكروإيملجن، والتي يمكن أن تكون مفيدة في تحضير أشكال الجرعات وتركيبات المستحضرات التجميلية. يتطلب إجراء بحوث إضافية لفهم الطبيعة الكاملة لتطبيقات أوراق الأورتيكا ديويكا في صناعة الأدوية والأغذية، نظرًا لتركيبها الغني بالمركبات الحيوية.
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    Low density polyethylene/zinc peroxide composite and nanocomposite prepared by cast solution: Thermal, mechanical and morphological characterization
    (Al-Quds University, 2023-05-06) Hanebal Mousa Issa Mansour; هنبال موسى عيسى منصور
    Polymer composite and nanocomposite materials with inorganic filler like metal oxides such as zinc oxide, magnesium oxide and zinc peroxide are motive fields of research due to the innovative combination of properties between the polymer and filler, arising from the application of inorganic filler and nanofiller within polymer matrix. The present study investigated the influence of different concentration of zinc peroxide (ZnO2) particles and nanoparticles on the thermal, mechanical, morphological, and antibacterial properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/ZnO2 composite and nanocomposite. Different compositions of LDPE/ZnO2 and LDPE/nano ZnO2 composites were prepared by solution cast technique with ZnO2 concentration of (1wt%, 3wt % and 5wt%) for composite and (0.5wt%, 1wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt% and 5wt %) for nanocomposite. Firstly, ZnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using three different methods, the first one reflux reaction method used polyethyleneimine (PEI) as capping agent and the second one reflux reaction method without capping agent and the last one sol-gel method. Reflux reaction method without capping agent was chosen for preparing nanocomposite, because it has the good reaction percentage yield compared to the other methods. The synthesized ZnO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Highly crystalline cubic-ZnO2 nanoparticles grown in a near- spherical shape were obtained with average size about 82 nm ,48 nm and 55 nm for reflux without PEI, reflux with PEI and sol-gel respectively, based on SEM and XRD analysis. It was found by DSC that the synthesized ZnO2 samples decomposes into zinc oxide (ZnO) at about 230-238 oC. The observed vibrational modes by FTIR in the ZnO2 nano-powder are discussed and compared with previous reports and suggest the purity of the ZnO2 particles that synthesized from the reactants. The results of the morphological analyses of composite shows a distribution of ZnO2 in the LDPE matrix with little signs of agglomerates and the particles were embedded in the matrices of the composite but they don't appear well on the surface of composite. For the nanocomposite, The SEM micrographs show that the nanoparticles are well distribution within the whole polymer matrix. The micrograph of the nanocomposite with ZnO2 nanoparticles filler showed a distinct dispersion behavior as that of the composite containing the ZnO2 filler. The addition of ZnO2 filler in the composite and nanocomposite imparted slight variations in the melting temperature of different concentration of composite and nanocomposite samples and gave significant improvements in the degree of crystallinity since the filler could act as a nucleating agent. The results of mechanical characterization showed that the tensile properties of LDPE/ZnO2 nanocomposites are higher than those of LDPE/ZnO2 composites except yield strength which mean that the composite can withstand high stress without a permanent plastic deformation as compared to nanocomposite. It was found that LDPE without any filler achieved a tensile strength of 4.94 MPa and the tensile strength of ZnO2 /LDPE nanocomposites increased with increasing ZnO2 nanoparticles concentration until reaching the highest value of tensile strength 5.28 MPa at 5wt% of nanoparticles, while the tensile strengths of the composites decreased with increased concentration of ZnO2 powder and dropped to 4.35 MPa at 5wt% ZnO2 particles. The elastic modulus of ZnO2 /LDPE composite and nanocomposite was found to increase progressively with ZnO2 concentration, the highest set of values was obtained for 5 % concentration of ZnO2 for nanocomposite with the modulus value 0.124 GPa compared to pure LDPE with modulus value 0.103 GPa. As well the fracture strength increased as the nanofiller size decreased to nano sized as compare to composite, so the nanocomposite has higher ability to resist failure than composite. Moreover, the elongation at fracture decreased steadily with increasing in ZnO2 concentration for the composite from 36 % to 29 % and for nanocomposite from 48 % to 42 %. Unfortunately, the antibacterial characterization of composite and nanocomposite did not show any zone of inhibition on agar plates for composites and nanocomposite against aerobic and anaerobic bacterias.
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    Pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) versusـ Juice: Properties and Benefits
    (Al-Quds University, 2022-08-12) Eman Hasan Ismail Amar; ايمان حسن إسماعيل اعمر
    The presence of antioxidants and polyphenols in pomegranate peels and juice has been linked to several medical benefits. In the juice, you'll find vitamins and minerals. It is possible to understand the pomegranate's features and benefits, which are beneficial for treating a variety of disorders, by using various extracts (alcoholic extract and ethyl acetate). To develop treatments for diverse ailments, this study is crucial. In this study, the pomegranate peel was extracted using the Soxhlet extraction apparatus, which was able to essentially remove all of the active compounds from this plant. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to measure the total phenolic content (TPC) of pomegranate peel extracts and juice. All tests were performed using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Pomegranate juice and peel were shown to have antioxidant capabilities and high phenolic content. While the total phenolic content (TPC) of pomegranate peel extracted with ethanol 99% produced a result of (78.81mg/g) higher than that of pomegranate peel extracted with, ethanol 35% which is (74.94mg/g) and ethyl acetate (56.61 mg/g) and juice(23.88 mg/g), where the total flavonoids content (TFC) ended with a result of pomegranate extract with ethanol 35% (18.09 mg/g) higher than the extracted with ethanol 99% (7.95 mg/g) and pomegranate juice (0.0547 mg/g). HPLC analysis of polyphenolic standards compounds and flavonoids was detected and identified by comparing the peaks retention times in the sample chromatogram of pomegranate peel (extracted using ethanol) with that of the standard. After conducting the HPLC analysis, the results showed, Rutin and Gallic acid By scavenging free radicals with the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity (AA) of pomegranate peel extracts was identified. Pomegranate peel was extracted using ethanol 99.9% and ethanol 35% as a solvent, yielding results of (51.9 mg/g), (9.86 mg/g), and juice (16.79 mg/g), as opposed to (76.8 mg/g) when ethyl acetate was used as the solvent. The extracts from peel pomegranate (extracted using ethanol 99.9%) antibacterial activity were determined in vitro using the agar disc diffusion method The existence vii of positive control. the result showed antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus and the juice does not have a direct effect on the bacteria, as the bacteria appeared diluted. The anti-glycation formation of the end product was assessed using an in vitro glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) test. The results of the study showed that pomegranate peel extract with ethanol has an anti-glycation effect, whereas pomegranate juice has less of it. The cream was made based on pomegranate peel extracted using ethanol and had several features, including moisturizing, and smoothing, has a pleasant scent, absorption rapidly (without leaving a film), does not irritate the skin (pH= 5.5-6), has excellent color, easily distributed on the skin The enzyme HMG-CoA(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase is essential for the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. The liver produces less cholesterol when HMG-CoA reductase is present. Pomegranate peel (extracted with 99.9% ethanol) had a 45% inhibitory effect, and pomegranate juice had a 74% inhibitory effect.