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- ItemSpectroscopic investigations of pentobarbital interaction with human serum albumin(Elsevier, 2010-01-29) Darwish, Saqer M.; Abu sharkh, Sawsan E.; Abu Teir, Musa M.; Makharza, Sami A.; Abu-hadid, Mahmoud M.The interaction between pentobarbital and human serum albumin has been investigated. The basic binding interaction was studied by UV-absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. From spectral analysis pentobarbital showed a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant (k) is estimated at 1.812 104 M 1 at 293 K. FT-IR spectroscopy with Fourier self-deconvolution technique was used to determine the protein secondary structure and drug binding mechanisms. The observed spectral changes of HSA–pentobarbital complex indicate a larger intensity decrease in the absorption band of a-helix relative to that of b-sheets. This variation in intensity is related indirectly to the formation of H-bonding in the complex molecules, which accounts for the different intrinsic propensities of a-helix and b-sheets.
- ItemPrevalence and awareness of osteoporosis among postmenopausal Palestinian women(Springer, 2010-05-18) Abd-Alhameed, Intissar; Saba, Elias; Darwish, Hisham M.Summary The prevalence and awareness of postmenopausal osteoporosis was assessed among 569 postmenopausal women randomly selected from the population. Osteoporosis was assessed based on bone mineral density (BMD) values at three indicative sites. The results indicate a significant prevalence of the disease among this fraction of the population with a poor knowledge of its risk factors. Introduction Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major health problem at the individual and population levels. Assessment of its prevalence and awareness of risk factors provide the basis for health plans to control the disease. No previous studies have been done in our population. A cross-sectional study including 569 postmenopausal women showed a significant prevalence of osteoporosis with a poor awareness of risk factors. Methods Included in the study were 569 randomly selected postmenopausal women (≥49 years of age). BMD was measured in 505 subjects at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Awareness was evaluated using a special questionnaire. Results Osteoporosis affected the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip in 24%, 14% and 29.7% of subjects, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (p<0.001) between age and number of years since menopause and BMD at all the sites evaluated. Conversely, BMD increased at the three sites as weight, height and BMI increased. There was a significant positive correlation between BMD at the three sites and the physical characteristics of the subjects (weight, height and BMI) (p<0.001 at the hip and femoral neck, and p=0.05 at the lumbar spine). BMD was higher at the lumbar spine and femoral neck among subjects aware of the disease (0.893 and 0.746 g/cm2, respectively) than among subjects unaware of the disease (0.835 and 0.712 g/cm2, respectively). This investigation is the first among Palestinian women in this region. It indicates the urgent need for a comprehensive national programme to reduce the incidence of osteoporosis. Conclusion Postmenopausal osteoporosis is significant among the Palestinian population and there is a poor awareness of the risk factors.
- ItemA neural model of hippocampalstriatal interactions in associative learningand transfer generalization in various neurological and psychiatric patients(Elsevier, 2010-08-21) Herzallah, Mohammed; Moustafa, Ahmed; Keri, Szabolcs; Myers, Catherine; Gluck, MarkBuilding on our previous neurocomputational models of basal ganglia and hippocampal region function (and their modulation by dopamine and acetylcholine, respectively), we show here how an integration of these models can inform our understanding of the interaction between the basal ganglia and hippocampal region in associative learning and transfer generalization across various patient populations. As a common test bed for exploring interactions between these brain regions and neuromodulators, we focus on the acquired equivalence task, an associative learning paradigm in which stimuli that have been associated with the same outcome acquire a functional similarity such that subsequent generalization between these stimuli increases. This task has been used to test cognitive dysfunction in various patient populations with damages to the hippocampal region and basal ganglia, including studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), schizophrenia, basal forebrain amnesia, and hippocampal atrophy. Simulation results show that damage to the hippocampal region—as in patients with hippocampal atrophy (HA), hypoxia, mild Alzheimer’s (AD), or schizophrenia—leads to intact associative learning but impaired transfer generalization performance. Moreover, the model demonstrates how PD and anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm—two very different brain disorders that affect different neural mechanisms— can have similar effects on acquired equivalence performance. In particular, the model shows that simulating a loss of dopamine function in the basal ganglia module (as in PD) leads to slow acquisition learning but intact transfer generalization. Similarly, the model shows that simulating the loss of acetylcholine in the hippocampal region (as in ACoA aneurysm) also results in slower acquisition learning. We argue from this that changes in associative learning of stimulus–action pathways (in the basal ganglia) or changes in the learning of stimulus representations (in the hippocampal region) can have similar functional effects.
- ItemSpectroscopic study of propofol binding to human serum albumin(World Scientific, 2010-11-10) Darwish, Saqer M.The interaction of propofol and human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by UV-absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Propofol has shown a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant (k) is estimated at a low value of 2.55×103 M−1 at 293K. FT-IR spectroscopy with Fourier self-deconvolution technique was used to determine the protein secondary structure in the amide regions I, II and III. The observed spectral changes of HSA-propofol complex indicate a larger intensity decrease in the absorption band of α-helix relative to that of β-sheets. This variation in intensity is related indirectly to the formation of H-bonding in the complex molecules, which accounts for the different intrinsic propensities of α-helix and β-sheets.
- ItemAssessment of Patient Safety Culture in the Palestinian Hospital Pharmacies(AL-Quds University, 2011) وفاء جمال حسن الزغاري; Wafa Jamal Hassan Zaghari; معتصم حمدان; Hussein Hallak; Ali ShaarBackground: Patient safety culture assessment in pharmacies is increasing largely worldwide, many tools that were used to assess patient safety culture at the hospital settings as a whole are now adapted to be used for pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure patient safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The tool consists of 30 items that cover six safety culture domains. The intention of this research is to map the patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospital pharmacies, this will be achieved through measuring and analyzing the patient safety culture domains there, understanding factors influencing safety culture and examine variations between different hospital pharmacies. This assessment helps in determining safety culture domains that are considered as areas of strength, and safety culture domains that are considered as areas of weakness for each hospital pharmacy. Mapping patient safety culture in hospital pharmacies will end up by directing each hospital pharmacy to improve areas of weakness effectively and efficiently. Purpose: To assess patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospital pharmacies, and to assess the association of hospitals and respondents characteristics with patient safety culture. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. The English version of the SAQ was translated and adapted to the Palestinian context. The survey was carried out in (28) Palestinian hospitals in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. All pharmacist assistants, pharmacist, and clinical pharmacists in these hospitals were targeted, estimated to 115 personnel. Items mean and scale scores were calculated. Then a composite score equivalent to the arithmetic mean of the scale scores were also calculated. In order to identify areas of strength and areas for potential improvement, the percentages of positive responses for the survey domains and items were calculated. Univariate analysis was used to test associations between composite patient safety scores and different respondent and hospital characteristics. viii Findings: 73 persons participated in the study, response rate was 68.8%. Females were 66.7%, 51% were pharmacist or clinical pharmacist, and 84.7% were with experience ≥ 5 years in profession. Two SAQ domains, job satisfaction and working conditions, were identified as areas of strength and received ≥75% of positive responses. Patient safety level was graded as “accepted” by (50%) of the respondents and none gave their pharmacy a “Poor” or “Failing” grade. Event reporting was very low, (66%) of the respondents didn’t report any event in the past year. In regard to the associations between safety culture domains scores with participants and hospital characteristics, the association was statistically significant (P<0.05) in regard to hospital ownership with the teamwork climate (P=0.02), perception of management (P=0.03), job satisfaction (P=0.001), and working conditions (P=0.02) and all in favor of the private and NGO hospitals. Participants working in hospitals sized <50 beds were more positive towards perception of management climate than their counterparts in larger sized hospitals (P=0.031). The overall safety score was significantly associated only with the hospital ownership (P=0.002) in favor of the private and NGO hospitals. No statistically significant associations were found between safety culture domains and the participant’s age, gender, years of experience in profession and hospital, level of education, working hours, and job title. The safety culture domain scores varied largely among different hospital pharmacies. None of the six domains were positive for four hospitals, twelve hospitals have negative total safety score and the best result was having five positive safety domains and a positive total safety score and this result was achieved only by two hospitals. Conclusions: Safety culture assessment results revealed areas for potential improvement in Palestinian hospital pharmacies. Hospitals need to formulate specific patient safety culture interventions to address these weaknesses
- ItemStudy of Progesterone interaction with Human Serum Albumin: Spectroscopic approach(2011-01-17) Abu Teir, M. M.; Ghithan, J. H.; Darwish, S. M.; Abu-Hadid, M. M.The interaction between progesterone and human serum albumin has been investigated. This interaction was studied by UV-absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. From spectral analysis progesterone showed a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant (K) is estimated 6.56×102 M-1 at 293 K. FT-IR spectroscopy with Fourier self-deconvolution technique was used to determine HSA secondary structure and progesterone binding mechanisms. The observed spectral changes indicate the formation of H-bonding between progesterone and HSA molecules which can be related to the intensity decrease in the absorption band of α-helix relative to that of β-sheets.
- ItemExtent and nature of unlicensed and off-label medicine use in hospitalized children in Palestine(Springer, 2011-05-13) Hussein Hallak; Maher khdour; Alayasa, Kawther; AlShahed, Qusai; Hawwa, Ahmed; McElnay, JamesObjective of the study To determine the extent and nature of unlicensed/off-label prescribing patterns in hospitalised children in Palestine. Setting Four paediatric wards in two public health system hospitals in Palestine [Caritas children’s hospital (Medical and neonatal intensive care units) and Rafidia general hospital (Medical and surgical units)]. Method A prospective survey of drugs administered to infants and children \18 years old was carried out over a five-week period in the four paediatric wards. Main outcome measure Drug-licensing status of all prescriptions was determined according to the Palestinian Registered Product List and the Physician’s Desk Reference. Results Overall, 917 drug prescriptions were administered to 387children. Of all drug prescriptions, 528 (57.5%) were licensed for use in children; 65 (7.1%) were unlicensed; and 324 (35.3%) were used off-label. Of all children, 49.6% received off-label prescriptions, 10.1% received unlicensed medications and 8.2% received both. Seventy-two percent of off-label drugs and 66% of unlicensed drugs were prescribed for children \2 years. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit and infants aged 0–1 years were most likely to receive a greater number of off-label or unlicensed medications (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.03–3.59 and OR 1.99; 95% CI 0.88–3.73, respectively). Conclusion The present findings confirmed the elevated prevalence of unlicensed and off-label paediatric drugs use in Palestine and strongly support the need to perform well designed clinical studies in children.
- ItemCost-utility analysis of a pharmacy-led self-management programme for patients with COPD(Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011, 2011-06-04) Khdour, Maher R.; Agus, Ashley M.; Kidney, Joseph C.; Smyth, Bronagh M.; Elnay, James C.; Crealey, Grainne E.Objective: To undertake a cost-utility analysis (CUA) of a pharmacy-led self-management programme for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Setting: A single outpatient COPD clinic at the Mater Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland between. Method: CUA alongside a randomised control trial. The economic analysis used data from 127 COPD patients aged over 45 years, with an FEV1 of 30–80% of the predicted normal value. Participants received either a pharmacy-led education and selfmanagement programme, or usual care. One year costs were estimated from the perspective of the National Health Service and Personal Social Services and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated based on responses to the EQ-5D at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Main outcome measure: Cost per QALY gained. Results: The mean differences in costs and effects between the self-management and education programme and usual care were -£671.59 (95 CI%: -£1,584.73 to -£68.14) and 0.065 (95% CI; 0.000–0.128). Thus the intervention was the dominant strategy as it was both less costly and more effective than usual care. The probability of the intervention being costeffective was 95% at a threshold of £20,000/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses indicated that conclusions were robust to variations in most of the key parameters. Conclusion: The self-management and education programme was found to be highly cost-effective compared to usual care. Further research is required to establish what aspects of self-management and education programmes have the greatest impact on cost-effectiveness.
- ItemImpact of pharmaceutical care on health outcomes in patients with COPD(Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011, 2011-11-20) Khdour, Maher; Jarab, Anan; AlQudah, Salam; Shamssain, Mohammed; Mukattash, TareqBackground Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment goals are often not achieved despite the availability of many effective treatments. Furthermore, clinical pharmacist interventions to improve clinical and humanistic outcomes in COPD patients have not yet been explored and few randomized controlled trials have been reported to evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care on health outcomes in patients with COPD. Objective The aimof the present studywas to evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care intervention,with a strong focus on self-management, on a range of clinical and humanistic outcomes in patients with COPD. Setting Outpatient COPD Clinic at the Royal Medical Services Hospital. Method In a randomised, controlled, prospective clinical trial, a total of 133 COPD patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. A structured education about COPD and management of its symptoms was delivered by the clinical pharmacist for patients in the intervention group. Patientswere followed up at 6 months during a scheduled visit. Effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in terms of improvement in health-related quality of life,medication adherence, disease knowledge and healthcare utilization. Data collected at baseline and at the 6 month assessment was coded and entered into SPSS software version 17 for statistical analysis. A P value of\0.05 was considered statistically significant. Main outcome measure The primary outcome measure was health-related quality of life improvement. All other data collected including healthcare utilization, COPD knowledge and medication adherence formed secondary outcome measures. Results A total of 66 patients were randomized to the intervention group and 67 patients were randomized to the control group. Although the current study failed to illustrate significant improvement in health-related quality of life parameters, the results indicated significant improvements in COPD knowledge (P\0.001), medication adherence (P\0.05), medication beliefs (P\ 0.01) and significant reduction in hospital admission rates (P\0.05) in intervention patients when compared with control group patients at the end of the study. Conclusion The enhanced patient outcomes as a result of the pharmaceutical care programme in the present study demonstrate the value of an enhanced clinical pharmacy service in achieving the desired health outcomes for patients with COPD.
- ItemSocietal perspectives on community pharmacy services in West Bank - Palestine(2012-03-12) Khdour, Maher R.; Hallak, Hussein O.Understanding the public's view of professional competency is extremely important; however little has been reported on the public’s perception of community pharmacists in Palestine Objectives: To determine the perception of Palestinian consumers of the community pharmacist and the services they offer Method: This project used the survey methodology administered by structured interviews to consumers who attended the 39 randomly selected pharmacies, in six main cities in Palestine. The questionnaire had range of structured questions covering: Consumers’ patronage patterns, consumers’ interaction with community pharmacists, consumers’ views on how the pharmacist dealt with personal health issues, procedure with regard to handling private consultations. Results: Of 1,017 consumers approached, 790 consumers completed the questionnaire (77.7 %). Proximity to home and presence of knowledgeable pharmacist were the main reasons for patients to visit the same pharmacy. Physicians were identified as the preferred source of advice by 57.2% and pharmacists by 23.8%. Only 17% of respondents considered pharmacists as health professionals who know a lot about drugs and are concerned about and committed to caring for the public. In addition, 49% indicated that pharmacists spoke more quietly cross the counter during counseling and almost one third reported that the pharmacist used a private area within the pharmacy. The majority of respondents would be happy to receive different extended services in the community pharmacy like blood pressure monitoring. Conclusions: Palestinian consumers have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and the services they offer. Awareness should be created amongst the public about the role of pharmacist and the added value they can provide as health care professional. There is a need to consider privacy when giving patient counseling to increase user satisfaction.
- ItemGenetic, serological and biochemical characterization of Leishmania tropica fromfoci in northern Palestine and discovery of zymodeme MON-307(Springer, 2012-06-18) Abdelmajeed Nasseraldeen; Kefaya Azmi; Schnur, Lionel; Pratlong, Francine; Baidouri, Fouad; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Ereqat, Suheir; Abdeen, Ziad; Schonian, GabrieleBackground: Many cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) have been recorded in the Jenin District based on their clinical appearance. Here, their parasites have been characterized in depth. Methods: Leishmanial parasites isolated from 12 human cases of CL from the Jenin District were cultured as promastigotes, whose DNA was extracted. The ITS1 sequence and the 7SL RNA gene were analysed as was the kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA) sequence. Excreted factor (EF) serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) were also applied. Results: This extensive characterization identified the strains as Leishmania tropica of two very distinct sub-types that parallel the two sub-groups discerned by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) done previously. A high degree of congruity was displayed among the results generated by the different analytical methods that had examined various cellular components and exposed intra-specific heterogeneity among the 12 strains. Three of the ten strains subjected to MLEE constituted a new zymodeme, zymodeme MON-307, and seven belonged to the known zymodeme MON-137. Ten of the 15 enzymes in the profile of zymodeme MON-307 displayed different electrophoretic mobilities compared with the enzyme profile of the zymodeme MON-137. The closest profile to that of zymodeme MON-307 was that of the zymodeme MON-76 known from Syria. Strains of the zymodeme MON-307 were EF sub-serotype A2 and those of the zymodeme MON-137 were either A9 or A9B4. The sub-serotype B4 component appears, so far, to be unique to some strains of L. tropica of zymodeme MON-137. Strains of the zymodeme MON-137 displayed a distinctive fragment of 417 bp that was absent in those of zymodeme MON-307 when their kDNA was digested with the endonuclease RsaI. kDNA-RFLP after digestion with the endonuclease MboI facilitated a further level of differentiation that partially coincided with the geographical distribution of the human cases from which the strains came. Conclusions: The Palestinian strains that were assigned to different genetic groups differed in their MLEE profiles and their EF types. A new zymodeme, zymodeme MON-307 was discovered that seems to be unique to the northern part of the Palestinian West Bank. What seemed to be a straight forward classical situation of L. tropica causing anthroponotic CL in the Jenin District might be a more complex situation, owing to the presence of two separate sub-types of L. tropica that, possibly, indicates two separate transmission cycles involving two separate types of phlebotomine sand fly vector.
- ItemDissociating the Cognitive Effects of Levodopa versus Dopamine Agonists in aNeurocomputational Model of Learning in Parkinson's Disease(Karger AG, Basel, 2012-11-01) Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Gluck, Mark A.Background/Aims: Levodopa and dopamine agonists have different effects on the motor, cognitive, and psychiatric aspects of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: Using a computational model of basal ganglia (BG) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine, we provide a theoretical synthesis of the dissociable effects of these dopaminergic medications on brain and cognition. Our model incorporates the findings that levodopa is converted by dopamine cells into dopamine, and thus activates prefrontal and striatal D 1 and D 2 dopamine receptors, whereas antiparkinsonian dopamine agonists directly stimulate D 2 receptors in the BG and PFC (although some have weak affinity to D 1 receptors). Results: In agreement with prior neuropsychological studies, our model explains how levodopa enhances, but dopamine agonists impair or have no effect on, stimulus-response learning and working memory. Conclusion: Our model explains how levodopa and dopamine agonists have differential effects on motor and cognitive processes in PD.
- ItemComputationally Designed Enzyme Models to Replace Natural Enzymes in Prodrug Approaches(2012-11-16) Karaman, RafikThe striking efficiency of enzyme catalysis has inspired many organic chemists to explore enzyme mechanisms by studying certain intra molecular processes such as enzyme models which proceed faster than their intermolecular counterparts. This research brings about the important question of whether enzyme models will replace natural enzymes in the conversion of prodrugs to their parental drugs. Enzymes are mandatory for the inter conversion of many prodrugs to their parental drugs. Among the most important enzymes in the bioconversion of prodrugs are amides (ex. trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase, and aminopeptidase) and ester-based prodrugs (ex. paraoxonase, carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase and cholinesterase). Most of these enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes, however, non-hydrolytic enzymes, including all cytochrome P450 enzymes, are also capable of catalyzing the bioconversion of ester and amide-based prodrugs .
- Itemدراسة المطيافية لتفاعل فيتامين k1 مع بروتين بلازما دم الإنسان 'الألبومين' HSA(AL-Quds University, 2013-02-24) علا فهد جميل حوراني; Ola Fahid Jameel Hoorani; موسى أبو طير; د. محمود أبو حديد; د. خولة قمحية; د. جمال غبون
- ItemLearning from negative feedback in patients with major depressive disorder is attenuated by SSRI antidepressants(2013-09-23) Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Natsheh, Joman Y.; Abdellatif, Salam M.; Taha, Mohamad B.; Tayem, Yasin I.; Sehwail, Mahmud A.; Amleh, Ivona; Petrides, Georgios; Myers, Catherine E.; Gluck, Mark A.One barrier to interpreting past studies of cognition and major depressive disorder (MDD) has been the failure in many studies to adequately dissociate the effects of MDD from the potential cognitive side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use. To better understand how remediation of depressive symptoms affects cognitive function in MDD, we evaluated three groups of subjects: medication-naïve patients with MDD, medicated patients with MDD receiving the SSRI paroxetine, and healthy control (HC) subjects. All were administered a category-learning task that allows for dissociation between learning from positive feedback (reward) vs. learning from negative feedback (punishment). Healthy subjects learned significantly better from positive feedback than medication-naïve and medicated MDD groups, whose learning accuracy did not differ significantly. In contrast, medicated patients with MDD learned significantly less from negative feedback than medication-naïve patients with MDD and healthy subjects, whose learning accuracy was comparable. A comparison of subject's relative sensitivity to positive vs. negative feedback showed that both the medicated MDD and HC groups conform to Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect Theory, which expects losses (negative feedback) to loom psychologically slightly larger than gains (positive feedback). However, medicated MDD and HC profiles are not similar, which indicates that the state of medicated MDD is not "normal" when compared to HC, but rather balanced with less learning from both positive and negative feedback. On the other hand, medication-naïve patients with MDD violate Prospect Theory by having significantly exaggerated learning from negative feedback. This suggests that SSRI antidepressants impair learning from negative feedback, while having negligible effect on learning from positive feedback. Overall, these findings shed light on the importance of dissociating the cognitive consequences of MDD from those of SSRI treatment, and from cognitive evaluation of MDD subjects in a medication-naïve state before the administration of antidepressants. Future research is needed to correlate the mood-elevating effects and the cognitive balance between reward- and punishment-based learning related to SSRIs.
- ItemSpectroscopic approach of the interaction study of Ceftriaxone and human serum albumin(Academic Journals, 2013-12-10) Abu Teir, M. M.; Ghithan, J.; Abu-Taha, M. I.; Darwish, S. M.; Abu-hadid, M. MUnder physiological conditions, interaction between ceftriaxone and human serum albumin was investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultra violet (UV) absorption spectrum. From spectral analysis, ceftriaxone showed a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of human serum albumin (HSA) through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant (k) is estimated as K=1.02× 103 M-1 at 298 K. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy with Fourier self-deconvolution technique was used to determine the protein secondary structure and drug binding mechanisms. The observed spectral changes indicated the formation of H-bonding between ceftriaxone and HSA molecules at higher percentage for -helix than for the -sheets.
- Itemدراسة تأثير البروبوفول و الأرجنين على البيتا أميلويد بواسطة تقنيات مطيافية الجزيئات(AL-Quds University, 2014-02-01) شروق يوسف محمد عيايده; Shurook Yousef Mohammad Ayaydeh; صقر درويش; د. موسى ابو طير; جمال غضمون
- ItemEvaluation of Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) for Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes among Palestinian Arab Population(Public Library of Science, 2014-02-04) Kharroubi, Akram T.; Darwish, Hisham M.; Abu Al-Halaweh, Ahmad I.; Khammash, Umaiyeh M.The purpose of the study is to compare the potential of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes among Palestinian Arabs compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG). A cross-sectional sample of 1370 Palestinian men (468) and women (902) without known diabetes and above the age of 30 years were recruited. Whole blood was used to estimate HbA1c and plasma for FPG and total lipid profile. Fasting plasma glucose was used as a reference to diagnose diabetes ($ 126 mg/dL) and prediabetes (100–125 mg/dL). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for HbA1c was 81.9% to diagnose diabetes and 63.9% for prediabetes. The agreement between HbA1c and diabetes as diagnosed by FPG was moderate (K = 0.498) and low with prediabetes (K = 0.142). The optimal cut-off value for HbA1c to diagnose diabetes was $ 6.3% (45 mmol/mol). The sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 65.6% (53.1–76.3%), 94.5% (93.1–95.6%), 80.0% (72.8–87.3%), respectively. However, using cut-off value of $ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) improved specificity. At this cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 57.4% (44.9–69.0%), 97.1% (96.0–97.9%) and 77.3% (71.0–83.5%). For diagnosing prediabetes with HbA1c between 5.7–6.4% (39–46 mmol/mol), the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 62.7% (57.1–67.9%), 56.3% (53.1–59.4%) and 59.5% (56.3–62.5%), respectively. HbA1c at cut-off value of $ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) by itself diagnosed 5.3% and 48.3% as having diabetes and prediabetes compared to 4.5% and 24.2% using FPG, respectively. Mean HbA1c and FPG increase significantly with increasing body mass index. In conclusion, the ROC curves showed HbA1c could be used for diagnosing diabetes when compared to FPG but not for prediabetes in Palestinians Arabs even though only about 50% of the diabetic subjects were identified by the both HbA1c and FPG.
- Itemدراسة تأثير التستوستيرون على الالبومبيه البروتيه النبقل في بلازمب الذم بواسطة تقنيبت مطيبفة الجسيئبت(AL-Quds University, 2014-05-10) روان محمد خالد القواسمه; rawan mohammad khalid alqawasma; موسى أبو طير; د. محمود أبو حديد; No
- ItemStudy the interaction of hydrophobic vitamins (vitamin E and vitamin D) with HSA using Spectroscopic techniques(Quality Scientific Publishing, 2014-06-25) Abu Teir, M. M; Abu Awwad, I.; Abu-Hadid, M. M.; Darwish, S. M.The interaction of hydrophobic vitamins (vitamin E and vitamin D) with human serum albumin(HSA) at physiological (pH 6.9- 7.4) has been studied using UV-VIS spectrometer, and an FT-IR spectroscopy. The interaction of hydrophobic vitamins (vitamin E and vitamin D) with HSA has been investigated by using UV-absorption, and Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The binding constants of vitamin E and vitamin D have been determined by UV-absorption. The values of the binding constants are calculated at room temperature: (1.21×102M-1) and (6.8×101M-1) for vitamin E- HSA and vitamin D- HSA mixtures, respectively. FT-IR spectroscopy with Fourier self- deconvolution technique and second derivative resolution enhancement procedures were applied in the analysis of the amide I, amid II, and amid III regions to determine the protein secondary structure and hydrophobic vitamins binding mechanisms. All peaks positions in the three amide regions (amid I, amide II and amide III) have been assigned and any changes due to concentration changes have been investigated. The FTIR spectra measurements indicate a change in the intensity of absorption bands due to change in the concentrations in drugs. In addition a larger intensity decrease in the absorption band of α-helix relative to that of β-sheets has been observed. This variation in intensity is related indirectly to the formation of H-bonding in the complex molecules, which accounts for the different intrinsic propensities of α-helix and β-sheets.