Development of polymorphic EST microsatellite markers for the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Hamarsheh, Omar
Karakuş, Mehmet
Azmi, Kifaya
Jaouadi, Kaouther
Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza
Krüger, Andreas
Amro, Ahmad
Kenawy, Mohamed Amin
Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan
Abdeen, Ziad
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Background: Phlebotomus papatasi is a widely distributed sand fly species in different tropical and sub-tropical regions including the Middle East and North Africa. It is considered an important vector that transmits Leishmania major parasites, the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The development of microsatellite markers for this sand fly vector is of high interest to understand its population structure and to monitor its geographic dispersal. Results: Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed with simple di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats. The F statistics calculated for the 14 markers revealed high genetic diversity; expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.407 to 0.767, while observed heterozygosity (Ho) was lower and ranged from 0.083 to 0.514. The number of alleles sampled fall in the range of 9–29. Three out of 14 markers deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, no significant linkage disequilibrium was detected and high values for inbreeding coefficient (FIS) were likely due to inbreeding. Conclusions: The development of these functional microsatellites enable a high resolution of P. papatasi populations. It opens a path for researchers to perform multi locus-based population genetic structure analyses, and comparative mapping, a part of the efforts to uncover the population dynamics of this vector, which is an important global strategy for understanding the epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis.
Phlebotomus papatasi, Leishmania major, Microsatellites, Population structure