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- ItemApplication of Faraday Effect as an Authentication Technique for Vegetable Oils(P B International, 2022-05-19)The Verdet constant for olive and other vegetable oils has been measured in this work. Different types of vegetable oils also have different Verdet constants, this allows olive oil authentication from adulteration by other cheap vegetable oils. Most of the current work on edible oil adulteration is based on chromatographic analysis. This work attempts to employ Faraday effect as a sampling technique. The study of samples maintained for various lengths of time under various storage conditions revealed that each olive oil sample has a Verdet constant value that is dependent on the following factors: production year, sample history (i.e. storage conditions), and geographical area. Oils stored in room light exhibited lower levels of tocopherol, carotenoid, and chlorophyll than oils stored in the dark. Oils and fats constitute one of the three major classes of food products, the others being proteins and carbohydrates. Preliminary findings suggested that the Faraday Effect could be used to detect olive oil adulteration, implying that the effect could be proposed as a food authentication technique if calibration curves and standard Verdet constants values could be prepared for comparison with those of the samples under investigation. A further study is needed to determine the relation between the value of the Verdet constant and the primary and secondary oxidation products, oil component contents etc.
- ItemDetermination of Photoacoustic Detection in Michelson Interferometer Cavity(B P International, 2022-05-16)We report photoacoustic (PA) signal detection in a cell placed within the Michelson interferometer cavity in an attempt to relate photoacoustic effect to the Michelson fringe shift as a result of changes in the cell. Both detection schemes were investigated using IR absorp- tion and their sensitivities compared. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PA) is a type of photothermal spectroscopy in which the absorbed energy is released as a localised pressure wave, or sound wave. Signals related to the Michelson interferometer fringe and the PA effect have shown good relationships with each other utilising a variety of materials, including essential oils and the plant parts from which they are often extracted. Results were encouraging and will open the door widely to use the combined Michelson interfe- rometer-photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) in trace gas detection for different applications. Simultaneous detection of both signals utilising the novel combination technology offers an alternative to costly lasers, which are substituted by a low-cost wideband-pulsed IR source with good capabilities in the field of portable trace gas detection systems.
- ItemThe Efficacy of Cannabis on Multiple Sclerosis-Related Symptoms(MDPI, 2022-05-05)Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known as an autoimmune disease that damages the neurons in the central nervous system. MS is characterized by its most common symptoms of spasticity, muscle spasms, neuropathic pain, tremors, bladder dysfunction, dysarthria, and some intellectual problems, including memory disturbances. Several clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of cannabis on the relief of these symptoms in MS patients. The efficacy of Cannabis sativa (C. Sativa) in the management of MS outcomes such as spasticity, pain, tremors, ataxia, bladder functions, sleep, quality of life, and adverse effects were assessed in this review. Most clinical studies showed the positive effects of cannabinoids with their different routes of administration, such as oromucosal spray and oral form, in reducing most MS symptoms. The oromucosal spray Nabiximols demonstrated an improvement in reducing MS spasticity, pain, and quality of life with a tolerated adverse effect. Oral cannabinoids are significantly effective for treating MS pain and spasticity, while the other symptoms indicate slight improvement and the evidence is quite inconsistent. Oromucosal spray and oral cannabis are mainly used for treating patients with MS and have positive effects on treating the most common symptoms of MS, such as pain and spasticity, whereas the other MS symptoms indicated slight improvement, for which further studies are needed.
- ItemThe reality of knowledge management for principels in the Hebron governorate and its relationship to some demographic variables from the teacher’s perspective(2022-04-03)The study aimed at identifying the reality of knowledge management among public school principals in Hebron Governorate and its relationship with some variables from the teachers’ point of view. For achieving the study objectives, the team of researchers used the describtive analysis approach. The study was applied based on the staratified random sample, as the study sample consisted of (650) teachers from schools in Hebron Governorate. For the purpose of data collection, a questionnaire was prepared to measure the knowledge management practiced by school princials in Hebron Governorate from the teachers' point of view. The quesstionnare was formed of (38) under five sections (knowledge diagnosis, knowled generating, knowledge storage, knowledge distribution, knowledge application). The study found that the degree of practicing knowledge management by the school principal from the point of view of teachers in Hebron Governorate was medium in all fields. And that there were no significant differences between the estimates of the study sample members towards knowledge management processes due to the variables of: gender, academic qualification, and specialization, while there were differences in the vairables of (knowledge generation and knowledge storage), in favor of the natural sciences specialization.
- ItemDiagnostic Performance of Fractional Excretion of Sodium for the Differential Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury A Systematic Review andMeta-Analysis(American Society of Nephrology, 2022-06-17)Background and objectives AKI is classified as prerenal, intrinsic, and postrenal. Prerenal AKI and intrinsic AKI represent the most common causes for AKI in hospitalized patients. This study aimed to examine the accuracy of the fractional excretion of sodium for distinguishing intrinsic from prerenal AKI.