Removal of amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil by advanced membranes technology, activated carbon and micelle–clay complex
Dajani, Khuloud Jamal Khayyat
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Two antibacterials, amoxicillin trihydrate and cefuroxime axetil spiked into wastewater were completely removed by sequential wastewater treatment plant’s membranes, which included activated sludge, ultrafiltration (hollow fibre and spiral wound membranes with 100 and 20 kDa cut-offs), activated carbon column and reverse osmosis. Adsorption isotherms in synthetic water which employed activated carbon and micelle–clay complex (octadecyltrimethylammonium– montmorillonite) as adsorbents fitted the Langmuir equation. Qmax of 100 and 90.9 mg g–1, and K values of 0.158 and 0.229 L mg–1 were obtained for amoxicillin trihydrate using activated carbon and micelle–clay complex, respectively. Filtration of antibacterials in the ppm range, which yielded variable degrees of removal depending on the volumes passed and flow rates, was simulated and capacities for the ppb range were estimated. Stability study in pure water and wastewater revealed that amoxicillin was totally stable for one month when kept at 37°C, whereas cefuroxime axetil underwent slow hydrolysis to cefuroxime.