تحول الرأي العام الإسرائيلي وتفاعله مع الحكومة الإسرائيلية تجاه عملية السلام منذ بداية الانتفاضة الثانية 2000 إلى استحقاق أيلول 2011
The Dynamics of the Israeli public opinion and its interaction with the Israeli government towards the peace process: 2000-2011
ماهر تيسير محمد داود
Maher Tayseer Mohammad Daoud
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This study aims to examine the dynamics of Israeli public opinion as they unfold in the period between 2000, the year of the Al-Aqsa uprising (Intifada), up to the year 2011, the year of admission of Palestine as an observer-member State with the General Assembly of the United Nations, and examines the mutual interaction between Israeli public opinion and decision-making processes of successive Israeli governments regarding the peace process and security issues relating the Palestinians. The researcher aims in this study to provide an understanding of the Israeli public opinion, its characteristics and shaping factors. It examines its transformations, effects and interaction at the political level in Israel. This study endeavors to answer the following questions: What is the shape of the relationship in Israel between public opinion on the one part and the political level on the second part? How is Israeli public opinion formed? What are the factors affecting its formation? And what is its role in the decision making process? The importance of this study lies in understanding how Israeli public opinion is formed, and how it affects and is affected by the decision-making process. This research provided a new addition to the literature and suggested several future research questions. The researcher hypothesized in this study that the interaction between public opinion and the ruling political level in Israel in the decision making process is going in one direction, namely convergence in the face of what is perceived as existential danger. The researcher followed a descriptive historical approach in this study, in addition to the content analysis approach. The main finding of this research revealed that Israeli public opinion is profoundly affected by the political process. The interaction process is going in one direction. For example, it is worth noting here that Israeli public opinion that pressured Government to attack Gaza and supported the war on Gaza in 2008 has been deeply affected and remains overwhelmingly affected by propaganda led by the political level and by Israeli politicians and experts, which was pushing for the need to wage war. Several public opinion polls carried over the study period of this study have shown that the Israelis have become entrenched with time in the position of “There is no a partner for peace”, and that this community perceives itself to believes that under an existential threat, and they must therefore achieve ever-better deterrence, always draw a picture of victory, and without exception establish the idea that Israel cannot be defeated by military means. In this context, Israeli government and people consider any threat to its economics or settler-colonial policies as an existential threat. Consequently, the Israeli society is with its government in the case of initiating a war, because of the agreement of both sides on the idea of existential threat, and because the society seeks settler-colonial security and believes that it needs to achieve undisputed deterrence and demonstrate excellence. It is worth noting here that the Israeli memories of the holocaust are the main driving power for this way of thinking. The results of this study highlighted the need for further research in the field of Israeli public opinion, and try to better understand the Israeli situation. It also highlighted the need for reviewing the Palestinian public opinion and its effect on the Palestinian decision making process on one hand, and dealing with the Israeli leaders and community on the other hand. While the Palestinian people are living under an occupying state of Israel supported by its people who are anxious about their presence, we need to conduct further studies to reflect on both a-symmetrical views: the Israeli and the Palestinian, on contradictory- unequal issues which are considered important for each side. This can be a very useful tool that will support the Palestinians to keep their land on one hand, and to give the Palestinian elite larger margin of action. With the presence of centers dealing with such issues in Palestine, it is highly recommended to work with them, take their recommendations and build on their research.
- Regional Studies