Bicarbonate In-Vitro Effect on Beta-Hematin Inhibition by Artemisia sieberi Aqueous Infusion
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Malaria is still considered the most threatening disease in Africa. Plasmodium; the malaria parasite, forms during its intra-erythrocytic stage a pigment called hemozoin, which acts as a protection shield against oxygen radical-mediated stress that leads to parasite’s death. Many drugs targeting hemozoin formation such as chloroquine and amodiaquine, but recently strains of Plasmodium have gained resistance to such drugs. Artemisia sieberi stem and leaf water infusion extract compared with A. sieberi bicarbonate aqueous infusion were tested using a semi-quantitative in-vitro method based on the inhibition of ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FP) bio- mineralization developed by Deharo et al. to reveal the differences in antimalarial activity. Reversed phase preparative liquid chromatography coupled to Photo Diode Array (HPLC-PDA) detector was also used to explain this dissimilarity in antimalarial activity. We found that A. sieberi bicarbonate aqueous infusion inhibits the formation of β-hematin better than standard water infusion. The bicarbonate addition increases the extraction of more compounds as the chromatographic HPLC results revealed. Other Artemisia plants (A. vulgaris and A. herba alba) were also tested to explore any inhibition effects.