- Itemدور الاحزاب الدينية الاسرائيلية في الائتلافات الحكومية - حركة شاس حالة دراسية(Al-Quds University, 2009-02-25) ناجي محمد سعيد البطة; Naji Mohammad Al-Batah
- ItemElucidating the molecular interactions of human immunoglobulins with liposomal drug carriers(Al-Quds University, 2023-04-05) Nancy Hazem Mohammed Mohammed; نانسي حازم محمد محمدNanocarriers' success in biomedical applications depends largely on their uptake efficiency. In most cases biomolecules like proteins, DNA, and antibiotics are taken up via endocytosis by living cells. These cell organelles are part of the cell’s catabolic system, thus leading to enzymatic degradation of the NPs. A more promising alternative is to induce membrane fusion between the carrier and the cellular membrane for efficient molecular delivery. Therefore, liposomes with highly fusogenic prosperities have been developed at the Research Center of Jülich, called fusogenic liposomes (FLs). Applications relying on FLs as molecular delivery purposes have been successfully applied i.e. proteins, anti-cancer drugs, DNA, mRNA and siRNA, , but the exact mechanism of fusion has to be elucidated in more detail in future analysis. If nanoparticles are injected into the blood stream, they interact with hundreds of biomolecules that adsorb on their surface forming the so-called "protein corona". Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a corona-forming protein, mainly involved in immune reactions. IgG behaves as opsonin, which decrease the circulation time, promote inflammation, allergic reactions, and increase blood clearance by inducing complement activation . Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying immunoglobulin-nanoparticles interaction is yet unspecified. Therefore, this work has aimed to investigate the interaction of IgG with different liposomal formulations including fusogenic liposomes (FL), PEGylated liposomes (DOPC-PEG), and neutral liposomes (DOPC) as a control. For characterization of the liposomes/IgG complexes, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering (DLS and ELS), respectively were applied. The stability and IgG affinity to different liposomal formulations were investigated by fluorescence quenching spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Stern and modified Stern-Volumer equations and ITC plots were used to calculate binding constants, binding site, and thermodynamics parameters of IgG/liposomes complexes. The results of DLS and ELS showed that IgG adsorbed only on FL surfaces, as indicated by a significant increase in hydrodynamic diameter and a neutral zeta potential values approaching that of free IgG. Furthermore, PEGylated liposomes prevent IgG adsorption due to their low PEG density used (5%). Observations of fluorescence spectroscopy show that the structural change in IgG remains stable, but the quenching effect was only observed in FL. Further analysis of fluorescence data show that the FL/IgG complexes are electrostatically bound. Meanwhile, ITC shows mainly hydrophobic forces govern the FL/IgG complex. No binding was observed, with neutral liposomes (DOPC). While DOPC-PEG shows a contradictory result that indicates non-covalent binding with IgG. Further research may provide more accurate results. The results of this study suggest that FLs could be a promising safe therapeutic carrier in drug delivery. يعتمد نجاح الجسيمات النانوية في التطبيقات الطبية الحيوية إلى حد كبير على قدرتها على الاندماج بكفاءة مع الخلايا الحية وتفادي الجهاز المناعي. ولكن في معظم الحالات، تقوم الخلايا بامتصاص الجزيئات عبر عملية تدعى الالتقام الخلوي"endocytic pathway”، حيث تعمل على إدخال جزيئات مثل البروتينات والحمض النووي والمضادات الحيوية إلى الخلايا الحية. من سلبيات هذه العملية أنها تحارب الجسميات النانوية "جسم غريب" مما يؤدي إلى إفراغ محتوياتها وبالتالي تدميرها عبر الجسيمات الحالة. أظهرت العديد من الدراسات أن تحفيز اندماج الغشاء بين المادة الحاملة " الجسيمات النانوية " والغشاء الخلوي في الداخل يؤدي إلى توصيل جزيئي فعال. لذلك، تم تطوير جسيمات نانوية لها قدرة عالية على الاندماج مع الغشاء الخلوي، في مركز الأبحاث في يوليش ، حيث اطلقوا عليها اسم  (Fusogenic liposomes ‘FL’) .تم اختبار قدرة هذه الجسيمات FLs على إيصال جزيئات مثل البروتينات والعقاقير المضادة للسرطان والحمض النووي وmRNA و siRNA , ، حيث اظهرت قدرة عالية على الاندماج وايصال الجزيئات بشكل آمن وفعال، ولكن يجب توضيح الآلية الدقيقة للاندماج بمزيد من التفصيل في الأبحاث المستقبلية. يتم حقن الجسيمات النانوية في مجرى الدم حيث تتفاعل مع مئات الجسيمات الموجودة بالدم، مما يؤدي إلى التصاق بعض هذه الجسيمات على سطحها مكونة ما يسمى بـ الهالة البروتينية "Protein corona". قد تحتوي هذه الهالة البروتينية على جسيمات من الجهاز المناعي، مثل الغلوبولين المناعي (IgGs) حيث يمثل جزء رئيسي في الدم، ويشارك في تفعيل جهاز المناعة . ومع ذلك، فإن الآلية الكامنة وراء تفاعل IgGs مع الجسيمات النانوية بحاجة لمزيد من التفصيل. لذلك، يهدف هذا العمل إلى دراسة الاستجابة المناعية للغلوبولين المناعي IgG تجاه جسيمات نانوية مختلفة تشمل: جسيمات اندماجية (FL) ، و جسيمات نانوية مرتبطة ببوليمر (DOPC-PEG) ، وجسيمات تحمل شحنة متعادلة (DOPC) لتستخدم كمرجع. تم استخدام العديد من التقنيات لدراسة التفاعل بين IgG والجسيمات النانوية المختلفة ،مثل: Dynamic and Electrophoretic light scattering (DLS) and (ELS،( fluorescence quenching spectroscopy and Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). كما تم توظيف بعض المعادلات مثل Stern and modified Stern-volumer equations لحساب معامل الارتباط، وعدد مواقع الارتباط على IgG ، والثوابت المرتبطة بالديناميكا الحرارية التي تحمل معلومات عن التفاعل. أظهرت نتائج DLS و ELS وجود ل IgG على سطح FL وقد تمثل ذلك في زيادة في قطر الجسيم FL و اكتسابه شحنة سالبة ناتجة عن وجود البروتين IgG الذي يحمل شحنة سالبة على سطح FL. أما الجسيمات المرتبطة ببوليمر " PEGylated liposomes " فقد عمل البوليمر على منع وصول البروتين IgG إلى سطحه، وذلك بسبب إضافة نسبة قليلة من البوليمر(5% PEG) إلى الجسيم " DOPC-PEG ". أظهرت نتائج المطيافية" fluorescence spectroscopy " ان البروتين IgG ارتبط فقط مع FL وأن عملية الارتباط FL / IgG لم تشمل تغيرا في البروتين IgG ولا في الطول الموجي للطيف الإنبعاثي للبروتين، حيث ان IgG ارتبط عن طريق القوى الالكتروستاتيكية مع FL . كما أكدت نتائج ITC هذا، اما الجسيمات المتعادلة فلم تظهر تفاعلا مع IgG بينما أظهرت نتائج ال ITC للجسيمات المرتبطة ببوليمر "DOPC-PEG " ان هناك تفاعل بينها وبين IgG مما يؤدي إلى تناقض مع النتائج السابقة خلال هذه الدراسة التي أظهرت عدم وجود تفاعل بينهم . لذا نحن بحاجة لإجراء مزيد من التجارب المستقبلية للجسيمات المرتبطة ببوليمر "DOPC-PEG" للحصول على نتائج دقيقة. أما بالنسبة للجسيمات الاندماجية FL فقد أظهرت نتائج هذه الدراسة إلى أن FLs يمكن أن يكون ناقلًا علاجيًا آمنًا واعدًا في توصيل الأدوية.
- ItemKnowledge and Practices of Governmental Hospital Physicians about Health Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Gaza Governorates(Al-Quds University, 2009-12-22) Rania Ibraheem Al-Astal; رانيا ابراهيم الاسطلIonizing Radiation (IR) is widely used in medicine, especially in diagnostic investigations and therapeutic procedures. It is well-known that ionizing radiation is risky to humankind. Therefore, the benefits from carrying out radiological investigations and therapeutic procedures should exceed its anticipated risks. However, physicians play a role in exposing patients to this radiation as they request these radiological examinations. So, this study has been designed to assess the level of knowledge and practices toward ionizing radiation risks among physicians in order to improve their practices and subsequently to reduce patients' exposure to risks. The study is a cross sectional one; conducted in three governmental hospitals; Shifa, Nasser and the European Gaza Hospital. The participating physicians were about 300 selected via a proportional stratified sampling procedure. The administrative and ethical considerations were taken into account. A selfadministered questionnaire was distributed to the selected physicians and 210 completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 70%. Using a scoring system for assessing knowledge, the study findings indicate that physicians' knowledge towards IR risks was relatively low (less than 56 %). Only 14% of them had a high knowledge in this regard. Regarding physicians' practices, although it was slightly higher their knowledge (58%), still it was relatively low. Only 24% of physicians reported appropriate practices. Additionally, the study showed that there are no statistically significant variations in knowledge and/or practices among participants in relation to age, education and place of work. Moreover, there are no statistically significant variations in neither the knowledge nor the practices among the study subjects in reference to work related factors including; years of experience, experience in radiology department, type of specialty and department. In contrast, participants who use x-ray in therapeutic interventions (guidance) reported more appropriate practices than their counterparts who do not and the variation among the two groups were statistically significant (P value less than 0.05). According to the results, increasing the knowledge of physicians about IR risks and training them about radiation protection are priority issues. Also developing an imaging protocol to help physicians to promote standardized safe practices is a serious responsibility of the decision makers
- Itemالنظام القانوني لتنظيم السند الرسمي الالكتروني(جامعة القدس, 2009-04-18) عبد الله نظمي عبد المجيد مصلح; Abdulla Nathmi MeslehThe government departments such as (Notary service ) still organized the official bounds such as The agencies and contracts in traditional ways. This happen by using traditional papers signing by Parties , they do this by Footprint or signature or stamp, and saving them in traditional ways , this ways are easy to lose , with technological development that s happen in the word we must keep with these technology , We race between the Arab countries in the organization of official bonds electronically. The authority is the official e-governing authority by a competent public official, according to the conditions of certain legal and electronic means, the main objective of the establishment of an electronic bill is to bring together the parties are far from each other hundreds or thousands of kilometers in a single chamber, and dispensing with the traditional paper and transactions, and the possibility of access by all citizens On official business by offering the official government Web sites. The importance of electronic official authority if applied on the ground, inter alia, it means contributing to the social service community building because it will lead individuals to open to the world, on the other interaction means higher performance and lower cost, they are on the correspondence reduced pay the other hand it Fast and be issued the same moment, a third hand help to overcome setbacks and the slow pace of the government apparatus, reducing the risk of human interpretation unprepared for the information and data and also eliminate the time wasted in the institutional framework. Not regulated by the Palestinian legislature nor any Arab lawmaker mechanism to regulate electronic securities official, and here it should be a ز distinction between the parties if there is authority and the author of Justice in the same place and if they are removed from each unit and gathered them in place, in the first case, the mechanism should be thought as _ _ similar to the reception Bonds formal, but are traditionally the mainstay of electronic signatures and electronic mail and conservation, while in the second case, we believe that this organization is one of two ways, first the presence of a notary assistant in the whereabouts of the other party and the second communication between the parties and a writer of justice through sound and image _ _ Imaging camera directly. Such bonds must have the express authority of a strong technically, it is difficult to falsify and penetration, but they need to apply to the ground by the law and to demonstrate its authority explicitly, it is authoritative authority official and authoritative editor of the regular mail, is also the need for technical support And technicians on the ground to become the official authority electronic possible on the ground and the force of law. To achieve our study goal we adopted a descriptive analytical approach to prepare this thesis and we reached to Substantial results are:- 1. The draft did not trade and electronic commerce laws of most Palestinian and Arab States of modern electronic bill did not bear the official definition. 2. formal authority enjoyed several advantages of electronic does not have the formal authority of traditional authority such as this that there is an intermediary electronic, computer, and may lack some of the parties in place, and the presence of more than a notary 3-to regulate certain kinds of authority official website. 3. The existence of legal problems facing formal authority, such as electronic inadequacy of existing legislation to the official electronic bonds, as well as the presence of technical problems in official circles, such as lack of a ح secure network between institutions and the lack of technical system of egovernment. 4. Match elements of traditional formal authority and formal authority is the ordinary writing, signature and the official governing authority by a competent public official, according to the conditions established legal, and there is no difference here in the form of writing, signature and the process of receiving notary bond. 5. Conditions apply to traditional writing to write the formal authority of electronic mail 6. Identical to the terms of the electronic signature with the signing of the normal increase, but a condition that the documentation. 7. Electronic signature documented more accurate and safe and difficult to forgery and protect himself and protect the authority and demonstrates the site more satisfaction the signing of the ordinary. 8. Many lawmakers gave the editor of electronic authentic full of proof and gave him power equal to the force of law, such as traditional editor of the French and Tunisian legislation and the legislature UAE and some lawmakers gave the editor of the electronic force less than a conventional editor such as the Jordanian law and a bill exchanges and electronic commerce in Palestine.
- Itemإدارة المخاطر بين البنوك الإسلامية والتقليدية في ضوء معايير بازل الدولية للرقابة على المصارف العاملة في فلسطين(Al-Quds University, 2020-08-19) أسيد عبد الرحيم محمد عيسه; Osaid Abd Al-Raheem AyasaThis study aims to analyze and compare the size and extent of risk management practices for Islamic and conventional banks by defining and managing risks, indicating their types and controlling activities, and to understand how to calculate the risk-based capital adequacy ratio, and to ensure that banks apply Basel Standards in Palestine. To answer the question, How can Basel Standards be applied to Islamic banks in Palestine? The study also aims to identify the measurement techniques and risk mitigation tools used by Islamic and conventional banks operating in Palestine. And assess the impact of risk management, and analysis of liquidity risk on the risk management practices of Islamic and conventional banks in Palestine. The study used the quantitative research approach in collecting and analyzing data through two sources of primary and secondary data as tools of the study. Secondary data is collected through the annual reports of Islamic and conventional banks for a period of six years from 2013 to 2019 and a content analysis is performed using frequency analysis and recording the unlikely indicator. As for the initial data, through a tight questionnaire from specialists, and its application to employees, risk managers, and customer relations coordinators at Islamic and conventional banks. The study sample represented employees working in traditional banks (Arab Bank, Bank of Palestine, Alquds Bank, Bank of Jordan, and The National Bank; and Islamic Banks (Palestinian Islamic Bank, Arab Islamic Bank), as the number reached 150 respondents. Primary data was collected using the questionnaire attached in the appendix, and completed questionnaires were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS), regression analysis and the Mann-Whitney U test. The study found that Islamic banks differ significantly from their traditional counterparts in risk identification, risk management practices, liquidity risk analysis and risk management. Moreover, the variables (risk identification, risk assessment and analysis, credit risk analysis) are the most influential in the risk management practices of banks. Also, credit, liquidity, market and operational risks are the most important risks that conventional and Islamic banks face.