- ItemRisk Factors Associated with Lead Poisoning among Children Aged 2-6 Years in Gaza Governorates(Al-Quds University, 2011-09-24) Mohamed Jamal Safi; محمد جمال محمد صافيChildhood lead toxicity is an international problem and the prevalence of lead toxicity is largely determined by age and proximity to environmental sources. Children are more vulnerable to lead exposure because of the frequency of pica and hand-to-mouth activities and because children have a greater rate of intestinal absorption and retention of lead. It has deleterious effects, not only on the gastrointestinal tract but also on the central nervous system and kidneys. Lead is damaging also to the red blood cells. These manifestations can be serious and can lead to coma and death in acute poisoning. Risk factors associated with lead poisoning among children aged 2-6 years in Gaza Governorates as case control study were studied. The overall aim of the study was to identify the common risk factors associated with lead poisoning among children and also aimed to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of lead. The study design was a quantitative analytical retrospective case control study. The study subjects were 240, in which 120 were cases selected from children with Blood Lead Level (BLL) ≥ 10 µg/dl and 120 were controls selected from children with BLL ≤ 9.9 µg/dl. These information are stored in a data base at the Environmental Protection and Research Institute (EPRI-Gaza). Socio-demographic variables illustrated that 152 (63.3%) were males and 88 (36.7 %) were females. The age of study subjects was classified into two groups. The first one (51.7 %) was 24-48 months, while the second one (48.3 %) was 49-72 months. The majority of study subjects were in Gaza Governorate (50%), while the smallest one was in Rafah Governorate (6.7 %). Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16. Statistical analysis of capillary BLL of the samples indicated that the minimum and maximum was 3.2 and 65.1 ìg /dl respectively with mean level of 10.19 ìg /dl and median level 9.95 ìg /dl. The study results demonstrated statistical significant relationship between BLL of the study subjects and some independent variables of risk factors such as familial exposure including kohl by child in long period; household location from exposure sources including smelter, battery recycling, radiator repair and other lead sources; household distance from exposure sources including smelter, battery manufacturing and recycling and gas station; occupational exposure including painting works; child feeding and day care including child out home; and child health including child general health, child needs frequent medical care and child have anemia. The study results also pointed out that there are no statistical significant relationship between the BLL of the study subjects and variables of socio demographic, household exposure, period of occupational exposure, work clothes and showering (different protective occupational measures), tasks, crafts and hobbies at home (different familial exposure), and the child habits. Therefore, the study recommends childhood lead poisoning prevention policies to be initiated and implemented. Provide anticipatory guidance to parents of all infants and toddlers about preventing lead poisoning in their children. Removal of all nearby battery recycling and manufacturing plants/smelters, and auto radiator repair workshops located in the middle of highly populated urban areas, markets and dwelling zones is highly recommended. Children with high BLL more than 25 µg/dl should be treated and followed-up. Finally, decision-makers should introduce public awareness and educational programs to child sponsors and all levels of the interested personal about risk factors associated with lead poisoning and sources of lead xposure and its impact on human health.
- ItemKnowledge, Attitude and Practice of Primary School Teachers about Water Pollution in Khanyounis Governorate(Al-Quds University, 2011-06-01) Maysa Nabil Abu Mousa; ميسا نبيل ابو موسىThis study aimed to determine the level of KAP regarding water pollution among primary school teachers in Khanyounis governorate. The sample of the study consisted of 330 primary school teachers (208 from UNRWA and 122 from governmental primary schools) chosen from the assigned 15 schools. For data collection, the researcher used constructed, self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis, the researcher used frequencies, means, percentage, t- test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that generally the percentage of knowledge regarding water pollution was 81.7% among the teachers, the vast majority of study participants have knowledge about water pollution and its harmful effects on human being. Among study participants, 95.8% were found to have knowledge regarding water pollution, 95.2% believe that waste water is one of the sources of water pollution and 99.4% knew that polluted water can cause diseases to humans. Also, the results showed that 72.4% of study participants have some knowledge about environmental sciences, 65.8% considered environmental education as part of school curriculum and 43.3% of study participants related water pollution to lack of community awareness. Regarding attitudes, the mean percentage of the total scores for those who responded by (agree) on the attitudes scale items was 80.41. Also, 90.9% believe that mixing of sewage with groundwater must be reduced, 92.4% believed that water pollution can be reduced, 85.8% believed that quality of water can be improved by using filtration methods, 97.2% believed that legislations to control water pollution should be enacted and 98.8% believed that awareness of students regarding water pollution should be increased. Regarding participation in health educations sessions, only 17.9% participated health education sessions, of them 21.5% related that to absence of educational activities, 3.9% were not interested and 56.7% were not invited to attend any educational sessions. Also, 84.5% did not have any practical training regarding water pollution sources and control. Female teachers have better practices about water pollution compared to male teachers. There were no significant differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices toward water pollution between UNRWA and government school teachers. There were no significant differences in knowledge and attitudes toward water pollution related to age of the teacher, but differences were significant in practice, age group (20 – 30) years have better practices toward water pollution compared to other age groups. Also, there were no significant differences in knowledge and attitudes toward water pollution related to years of experience, but differences were significant in practice in favor of teachers who have less than 5 years of experience. There were no significant differences in knowledge, attitudes and practice toward water pollution between teachers with different qualifications. In conclusion, the results revealed high level of knowledge and attitudes, but low level of practice regarding water pollution. These results should stimulate some activities to raise the level of awareness toward environment through formal and informal educational programs.
- ItemColorectal Cancer Risk Factors in Gaza Governorates(Al-Quds University, 2011-06-14) Haya Nabeel S. Al Rayes; هيا نبيل الريسBackground: Colorectal cancer is one of the top five cancers in the Palestinian society. Risk or protection factors of the disease vary between genetics and environmental factors which involve nutritional and lifestyle behaviors. Aim: The study was conducted to identify the most common risk factors that may be associated with colorectal cancer among the population Gaza Governorates. Design and methods: A case control study involved 66 registered colorectal cancer patients from Al Shifa and Gaza European hospitals matched (for age, sex and locality) with two controls for each case. Controls were chosen from the primary health care centers. An interviewed questionnaire was used to compare between cases and controls in relation to the socioeconomic factors, family history, chronic diseases, dietary habits, lifestyles, supplementations, medications, health education and screening. To examine statistical significance OR with 95% confidence interval besides, Chi square test were calculated; P value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Risk of colorectal has been increased with: lower income level OR=6.5(2.39-18.29), lower level of education OR=2.53(0.91- 7.1), some types of professions OR=3.42(1.49-7.93), family history OR=4.2 (1.35-13.54), chronic bowel disturbances OR=42.8(15.5- 124.7), eating fried fish OR=6.6(1.77-29.08), preferring to eat red meat OR=2.1(1.1-4.0) and poor health knowledge OR=2.38(1.17- 4.86). Protection from colorectal cancer was obtained with regular intake of fruits OR=0.3(0.09-.98), cereals OR=0.5(0.26- 0.96), bran bread OR=0.44(0.21- 0.94), besides preferring to eat vegetables OR=0.51(0.24-1.0), calcium supplementation intake OR=0.36(0.13- 0.91), and attending of health educational lectures about healthy nutrition and life styles OR=0.51(0.25- 1.0). Colorectal cancer screening tests were only performed for the diagnosis of the disease rather than being used for the screening purpose. No evidence of relation was associated with other chronic diseases, other types of food, life styles and supplementations. Conclusion: Risk was found with: family history, chronic bowel disturbances, socioeconomic factors, some food, and poor health knowledge, while protection was associated with of some other food, calcium. Recommendations to improve the community health education provide suitable related screening programs; improve cancer patients' registry and the encouragement of further related studies.
- ItemEnvironmental Risk Factors Associated with Breast Cancer-Gaza Governorates(Al-Quds University, 2011-02-07) Asad Said M. Ashour; اسعد سعيد محمد عاشورThe study aimed to identify possible environmental risk factors for breast cancer among women in Gaza Strip and conducted in 2010. A case- control study design was used with face to face interviews by structured questionnaire with breast cancer patient women as well as healthy women. Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the collected data. The study population was 288 women, 144 were women with breast cancer (cases) and 144 were healthy women (controls) with response rate 100% for cases as well as controls. The study was carried out in the two main hospitals in Gaza Strip (El-Shifa & EG) and on cases who had a regular follow up in each hospital from August to December 2010, while controls have been chosen from women who had no history of breast cancer by mammogram or by self examination. In this study the main statistically significant risk factors were; marital status, educational status, physical trauma on breast, medication for infertility treatment, eating red meat 500g or more weekly, eating canned food, eating chicken skin, eating raw and cooked vegetables, using oils with saturated fats in cooking, living beside solid waste disposal sites, exposing to source of pollution during work such as fertilizers, pesticides, and dusts, living in or beside a farm, dealing with crops with naked hands, working in a farm during pesticides application or during 24 hours of pesticides application, cleaning pesticides' equipments, living with people working in a farm or a agricultural field, and application of pesticides personally. In contrary, no statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls in relation to area of residency, exposure to X-ray in the past, having radiation therapy, getting contraceptive pills, using hair dyes, using antideoderant underarm, using facial cosmetics, using hair removal ointment, smoking, washing vegetables and fruits, living near factory, living near waste incinerators, exposing to toxic gases and tires fire, occupation for more than six months, buying and transporting pesticides, and wearing protective tools during pesticides mixing and application. The study recommended early screening for breast cancer detection, implement more health education or health awareness targeting women projects, avoiding dealing with pesticides without protective measurements, avoiding working in a farm while pesticides applied or during 24 hours of pesticides application, and avoiding as possible red meat eating more than 500g weekly.
- ItemAssessment of Domestic Electricity Generators Hazards in Jabalia Camp, Gaza Strip(Al-Quds University, 2012-08-13) Wael Abdul Majeed Okasha; وائل عبد المجيد عكاشةThis study titled "Assessment of Domestic Electricity Generators Hazards in Jabalia Camp, Gaza Strip" was conducted in the year 2011 in Jabalia Camp. The domestic electricity generators has be come a cause for different health and environmental hazards in particular emission gases and noise pollution. The study aimed to assess the health/environmental hazards of domestic electricity generators on the population in Jabalia camp. Methodology: A descriptive analytic cross sectional study was conducted on the houses in Jabalia Refugee Camp that have electricity generators using face to face questionnaire. A total of 265 questionnaires were distributed to the study population using two stages sampling method (stratified then random) A sum of 260 questionnaires were received with a response rate of 98%. The researcher used the SPSS, processing and analyzing the data. The percentage of CO concentration in the air was measured about half meter away from the exhaust of the generator by Mini Worn device. Then, the noise pollution level was measured by Sound Level Meter device from the place where the family gathers. Results: The results revealed that the percentage of the age of the person who operates the generator of the sample is 6.2% of less than 14 years; about 10.4% of the respondents place their generator inside the house. In addition, 7.7% had accidents caused by the generator at house, and 65% of the incidents were fires, 20% were explosions, and 15% were due to electric shocks. Also, one fatality case was reported. The complaints among the study population were as follow, nervousness 16.7%, headache 15.4%, breathing difficulty 13.7%, dizziness 12.4%, chest pain 12.1%, sleeping disturbances 9.3%, coughing 7.4%, tremor in extremities 7.0%, and loss of balance 6.0%. About 16.2% feel that they had negative changes in the hearing level for at least one family member in the last four years, and 96.5% of the study population think that noise pollution affects on their sleeping. The concentration level of CO as follow: 0.1% in the 42.3% of the study population, 0.05% in the 31.2% of them, and 0.01% in the 26.5% of the sample. Also, the noise pollution level in decibel were:61-90 db in 52.3% of the study population, and 31-60 db in 47.7% of the study population. The results showed that, there is statistically significant relationship between the carbon monoxide and the headache, with a p-value of 0.035, and between the noise pollution level and hearing problems due to the last four years, with a p-value of 0.049. Recommendations: The study provided a set of recommendations such as authorities are urge to make the effort required to accelerate the process of solving the issue of power cuts in Gaza Strip as soon as possible, generators should placed as far as possible from the people, reduce number of operation hours, the age of the person who operates the generators should not be less than 20 years old. and conducting of educational extension programs.