Aquaculture

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    Biotechnology for conservation of palestinian medicinal plants
    ( 2012-07-03) Alkowni, Raed ; Sawalha, Khaled
    Many plants of Palestinian flora are facing the risk of endanger, due to agricultural practices, environmental threats and consumption changes. In the absence of National program to conserve the Palestinian heritage of plant diversity, a tentative research work aimed in trial usage of available biotechnology’s methods for conserving several popular plants of medical, cultural and economical importance's. Tissue culturing of anise (Pimipnella anisum), sage (Salvia palestina), fenugreek (Trigonella sps), wild peppermint (Mentha spicita L.) and akoub (Gandelia tournefortii); using MS-media with specific plant growth regulators were successfully applied. Protocols for enhancing callus culturing, organogenesis and micropropagation of these tentatively threatened wild plants were developed and optimized in this research work. Based on the successfulness of propagation in vitro of these plants, a call for establishment of a Palestinian germplasm collection to conserve the Flora Palestina had been reported.
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    Utilization of desalinated brackish water residues for cultivation of the marine fish species,Dicentrarchus labrax, Sparus aurata, and Sciaenops ocellatus
    (Bioflux - bimonthly, 2013-01-19) Al-Qutob, Mutaz A. ; Qubaja, Ra'fat A. ; Nashashibi, Tharwat S.
    The utilization of brackish water residues from desalination units for fish mariculture in Palestine could represent an environmental friendly alternative of disposing brine water which could have an adverse effect on wild life. In this study, three juvenile marine fish species (Gilt-head bream S. aurata, European sea bass D. labrax, and red drum S. ocellatus) with average weights of 0.7-4.9 g, were acclimated and reared in brine brackish water residues collected from Jericho desalination units with salinities of 6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ diluted sea water as control for 3-7 months. Fish were fed 56 % rich protein diet. Brine brackish water contained high levels of Cl-1 (3369 mgL-1), Na+1(3735 mgL-1), K+1(300 mgL-1), SO4 -2 (716 mgL-1) with the divalent ions Mg+2 (57.3 mgL-1) and Ca+2 (276 mgL-1).The experimental well showed more than the maximum allowable concentration of Cr (14.49 μgL-1), Ag (5.3 μgL-1) and Mn (27.88 μgL-1) for water quality of fisheries use. The sea bass with an average weight of 0.76 g (at a salinity of 6.5 ‰) showed an acceptable growth performance parameters and reached a percentage weight gain (% WG) of 6345.23 % and a survival rate of 77.5 % compared to control groups at 11 ‰ that reached at the same time a % WG of 6543.78 % and a survival rate of 82 % after 30 weeks. The red drum juveniles reached a % WG of 2661.6 % and 2673.92 % after 15 weeks at 6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ respectively while sea bream reached a % WG of 241.63 % and 772.44 % after 15 weeks at 6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ respectively. Survival rate was only 5 % at both salinities for the two species. In a further study sea bass fingerlings with an average weight of 20.5 g were reared in brackish water of 6.5 ‰ salinity for 7 weeks and were fed superior fish meal with fish oil. They received diets of 2.1 %, 3.0 %, and 4.0 % of body weight. Sea bass fingerlings which received diets of 2.1 %, had the highest FCE (0.82) and PER (1.46) with the lowest FCR (1.22). These results confirm that the most suitable fish for cultivation utilizing brackish water from Jericho desalination units with salinity of 6.5 ‰ is sea bass D. labrax, while the other two species need some modification to acclimatize to this water. Furthermore, the best food % for optimum growth of sea bass at this salinity is 2.1 % after 7 weeks. Brackish water from Jericho desalination units are suitable for cultivation of these species, but may need some modification as adding salts to fish diet or water and reducing toxicity of some high trace metals present by a suitable method.
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    The effects of COX-Inhibitors (Diclofenac and Ibuprofen) on growth rate, mortality and sexreversal in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
    (Bioflux - bimonthly, 2009-10-30) Al-Qutob, Mutaz A. ; Nashashibi, Tharwat S.
    Several studies have been conducted to detect the direct effect of inhibiting the aromatase activity, the rate limiting enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens needed for ovarian differentiation in fish to overcome the immediate need for a more environmentally friendly substitute of methyl testosterone. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitors are potent and irreversible inhibitors of the COX pathway and since studies on human breast cancer cells shows that they decrease aromatase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression at the transcriptional level we tested the hypothesis of possible aromatase inhibition by the non-selective COX-inhibitors in fry fish tilapia. The effects of supplementation of COX-inhibitors (diclofenac and ibuprofen) in the diets of tilapia on growth rate, mortality and sexual differentiation have been studied. 20 Genetically females (XX) (O. niloticus) larvae were stocked in triplicates in a closed system and each were given control diet (C group) and control diet supplemented with (10 mgKg-1) diclofenac (1% diclofenac group), (5 mgKg-1) ibuprofen (0.5% ibuprofen group), and (5 mgKg-1) (0.5% diclofenac group) respectively for 4 weeks. After the 4th week all diets were changed to control diet. At the end of 12-weeks, no significant differences were found in growth rate (GR) between diets (p>0.05). Mortality ranged from 1.67% +- 2.89 (SD, n=3) in control group to 58.3% +- 14.4 (SD, n=3) in the 1% diclofenac group during the experimental feeding and from 6.67+-2.89 (SD, n=3) to 63.3%+-10.4 (SD, n=3) at the end of 12-weeks period. 7% In the control group, 36% in the 1% diclofenac group, 17% in the 0.5% ibuprofen group, and 22.2% in the 0.5% diclofenac group respectively never produced egg during the entire experimental period. Macroscopically all the nonspawning fish in the experimental groups were females with apparently larger ovaries and full of eggs compared to control. Microscopically they were full of apparently normal eggs with morphology similar to those of control. Postulated mechanisms of action of the supplemented COX-inhibitors are discussed. Based on the above it can be concluded that the use of COX-Inhibitors during the crucial period could modulate aromatase activity and affect reproduction in Nile tilapia.
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    Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System
    (MDPI, 2013-07-03) Qurie, Mohannad ; Abbadi, Jehad ; Khamis, Mustafa ; Karaman, Rafik
    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO4 3−, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment.
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    Analysis of phenolic and flavonoids of wild ephedra alata plant extractsby lc/pda and lc/ms and their antioxidant activity
    (PKP, 2017-01-15) Fuad Al-Rimawi ; Imad Odeh ; Jehad Abbadi ; Saleh Abu Lafi
    Background: Ephedra is among Palestinian medicinal plants that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine for treating many diseases. Ephedra is known to have antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity of different extracts from the Ephedra alata plant growing wild in Palestine, and to analyze their phenolic and flavonoid constituents by HPLC/PDA and HPLC/MS. Materials and Methods: Samples of the Ephedra alata plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with three different solvents namely, 100% water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity (AA), as well as phenolic and flavonoids content by HPLC/PDA/MS. Results: The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA of extracts. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by 100% ethanol, and finally with 100% water. TFC however was highest in the following order: 100% ethanol > 80% ethanol > water. Pearson correlation indicated that there is a significant correlation between AA and TPC, but there is no correlation between AA and TFC. Simultaneous HPLC-PDA and UHPLC-MS analysis of the ethanolic plant extracts revealed the presence of Luteolin-7-O-glucuronide flavone, Myricetin 3-rhamnoside and some other major polyphenolic compounds that share myricetin skeleton. Conclusion Ephedra alata extract is rich in potent falvonoid glycosidic compounds as revealed by their similar overlaid UV-Vis spectra and UHPLC-MS results. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that Ephedra alata constitutes a natural source of potent antioxidants that may prevent many diseases and could be potentially used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products.