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ItemBiotechnology for conservation of palestinian medicinal plants( 2012-07-03)Many plants of Palestinian flora are facing the risk of endanger, due to agricultural practices, environmental threats and consumption changes. In the absence of National program to conserve the Palestinian heritage of plant diversity, a tentative research work aimed in trial usage of available biotechnology’s methods for conserving several popular plants of medical, cultural and economical importance's. Tissue culturing of anise (Pimipnella anisum), sage (Salvia palestina), fenugreek (Trigonella sps), wild peppermint (Mentha spicita L.) and akoub (Gandelia tournefortii); using MS-media with specific plant growth regulators were successfully applied. Protocols for enhancing callus culturing, organogenesis and micropropagation of these tentatively threatened wild plants were developed and optimized in this research work. Based on the successfulness of propagation in vitro of these plants, a call for establishment of a Palestinian germplasm collection to conserve the Flora Palestina had been reported.
ItemInland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System(MDPI, 2013-07-03)The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO4 3−, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment.
ItemAnalysis of phenolic and flavonoids of wild ephedra alata plant extractsby lc/pda and lc/ms and their antioxidant activity(PKP, 2017-01-15)Background: Ephedra is among Palestinian medicinal plants that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine for treating many diseases. Ephedra is known to have antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity of different extracts from the Ephedra alata plant growing wild in Palestine, and to analyze their phenolic and flavonoid constituents by HPLC/PDA and HPLC/MS. Materials and Methods: Samples of the Ephedra alata plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with three different solvents namely, 100% water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity (AA), as well as phenolic and flavonoids content by HPLC/PDA/MS. Results: The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA of extracts. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by 100% ethanol, and finally with 100% water. TFC however was highest in the following order: 100% ethanol > 80% ethanol > water. Pearson correlation indicated that there is a significant correlation between AA and TPC, but there is no correlation between AA and TFC. Simultaneous HPLC-PDA and UHPLC-MS analysis of the ethanolic plant extracts revealed the presence of Luteolin-7-O-glucuronide flavone, Myricetin 3-rhamnoside and some other major polyphenolic compounds that share myricetin skeleton. Conclusion Ephedra alata extract is rich in potent falvonoid glycosidic compounds as revealed by their similar overlaid UV-Vis spectra and UHPLC-MS results. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that Ephedra alata constitutes a natural source of potent antioxidants that may prevent many diseases and could be potentially used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products.