- ItemSmart System to Avoid Car Accidents(IEEE, 2020-12-17) Saffarini, Muhammed; Saffarini, Rasha; Ishaq, IsamCar accidents have different reasons, they are either caused by external (outside the car) or internal factors (inside the car). Accidents due to external reasons occur because of environmental reasons such as obstructed vision of the driver due to fog or bad road conditions. Internal factors include decreased amount of Oxygen, and in turn increase the amount of carbon dioxide, driver sleep, humidity and temperature ratio between outside and inside the car, which cause condensation on the front windshield which limits the vision of the driver. To avoid car accidents, one should minimize both external as well as internal accident reasons. In this paper, a system consisting of two parts is proposed to monitor the external and internal driving conditions. The first one focuses on external accident conditions, which monitors the road and notifies the driver about any problem in front of him and take action to avoid it, by reducing their speed, increase the lights of the car, or by using smart bumps that come out when needed (the risk of sliding for example) to enforce the driver to drive slowly and carefully. These smart bumps are needed also when the sensors detect that the driver feels sleepy. Activating them will reduce the probability of an accident. Additionally, if the humidity and temperature of the environments increased over a specified range, fans are activated to cool down the temperature inside the car. The other system works inside the car. If the air conditions pose a danger on the driver (the temperature, or CO2 increased for example), the system takes an action by starting the air condition or opening the windows to balance the temperature or CO2 ratios. The system will be applied by using sensors to measure factors inside and outside the car, which in turn tells the cars what to do by the interaction between both systems via the internet.
- ItemCloud-based Internet of Things Approach for SmartIrrigation System: Design and Implementation(IEEE, 2020-12-17) Thaher, Thaer; Ishaq, IsamWater plays a significant role in the economic de-velopment of countries. The agriculture sector is the most water-consuming; this sector consumes 69% of the freshwater. However,farmers often use traditional irrigation systems to water theircrops. These systems are ineffective and consume a lot of timeand effort, especially when there are several fields distributedin different geographical regions. Therefore, employing smartirrigation techniques will significantly overcome these problems.In this paper, we propose an intelligent irrigation frameworkbased on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and Internet of Things(IoT) cloud services. The proposed system consists of three maincomponents; the WSN, the control unit, and cloud services.Arduino Uno and XBee ZigBee modules are combined to gathersensors data and send them wirelessly to the control unit. YL-69 sensor is used to monitor the soil moisture. Raspberry Pi isutilized to gather data, process them, provide the proper decision,and transfer them to ThingSpeak IoT cloud. In the cloud, the datacollected from the system is stored to create instance visualizationof live data and send alerts. This allows farmers to monitor thestatus of crops and make the required decisions. After inspectingthe prototype, many challenges are posed for future work.
- ItemImproving Irrigation by Using a Cloud Based IoT System(IEEE, 2020-12-17) Assaf, Rasha; Ishaq, IsamPalestine is a fertile country, and the agriculture system is a significant part of its economy. In Palestine, farming depends on rainfall, however, the rainfall amount has been decreasing over the years and springs are drying out. Therefore, the irrigation system is considered one of the most used systems in the agriculture field. However, there are many factors that should be taken into consideration to control the right amount of water that should be provided to the plant when using the irrigation system, like the soil type, the fertility of the soil, the moisture level, humidity, and temperature of the soil. Our proposed irrigation system takes into account those factors to automate the amount of water dispensed to the plants. The project employs a microcontroller module (ESP8266) which connects the system to the internet by WiFi. This module controls two relays for supplying water to the field, and triggers the fans based on the information obtained from the soil moisture and temperature humidity sensor. This entire system is monitored and controlled by a Blynk server.
- ItemOnline Monitoring Health Station Using Arduino Mobile Connected to Cloud service “Heart Monitor” System(IEEE, 2020-12-16) Karajah, Eman; Ishaq, IsamThis paper presents a monitoring health station system for vital signs called “Heart monitor”. Heart Monitor is a system which can measure the heart rates and body temperatures of patients and then record them in cloud services. The cloud services can then be accessed in real-time by the medical staff to monitor the patients’ health at any given location and time. This system is connected to a mobile phone which sends an alarm if the heart rate values become abnormal. After 5 abnormal readings it will automatically call the doctor or the person whose number is included in the system. The system is tested and compered to an ECG device. The results show an excellent accuracy of 97.4%.
- ItemContributions of mean and shape of bloodpressure distribution to worldwide trends andvariations in raised blood pressure: a pooledanalysis of 1018 population-based measurementstudies with 88.6 million participants(Oxford University Press., 2018-03-19) Abdeen, Ziad A; NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20–29 years to 70–79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probittransformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005–16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the highincome Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.