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ItemSerum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women(Springer, 2017-01-26)Summary This study evaluated the association of vitaminD and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with serum vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, obesity, and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Methods Three hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women (≥45 years) were recruited from various women clinics for BMD assessment (131 women had osteoporosis and 251 were normal and served as controls). Blood samples were obtained for serum calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, bone formation (N-terminal propeptide (PINP)), and bone resorption (serum Cterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX1)) markers. Results Women with osteoporosis had statistically significant lower mean weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and serum calcium (p < 0.05) compared to controls. No significant differences were detected between the mean values of bone turnover markers (CTX and PINP), 25(OH)D, and PTH of the two groups. Women with vitamin D deficiency (severe and insufficiency) represented 85.9% of the study subjects. Multiple and logistic regression showed that age and BMI significantly affected BMD and vitamin D had a significant association with BMD only at the lumbar spine. BMI was positively correlated with BMD and PTH but negatively correlated with vitamin D. Logistic regression showed that the odds ratio (OR) for having osteoporosis decreased with increasing BMI (overweight OR = 0.11, p = 0.053; obese OR = 0.05, p = 0.007). Conclusions There was no direct correlation between BMD and PTH, bone turnover markers, and vitamin D except at the lumbar spine. A negative correlation between BMD and age and a positive correlation with BMI were observed. The protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis was complicated by the effect of obesity on vitamin D and PTH.
ItemEvaluation of Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) for Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes among Palestinian Arab Population(Public Library of Science, 2014-02-04)The purpose of the study is to compare the potential of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes among Palestinian Arabs compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG). A cross-sectional sample of 1370 Palestinian men (468) and women (902) without known diabetes and above the age of 30 years were recruited. Whole blood was used to estimate HbA1c and plasma for FPG and total lipid profile. Fasting plasma glucose was used as a reference to diagnose diabetes ($ 126 mg/dL) and prediabetes (100–125 mg/dL). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for HbA1c was 81.9% to diagnose diabetes and 63.9% for prediabetes. The agreement between HbA1c and diabetes as diagnosed by FPG was moderate (K = 0.498) and low with prediabetes (K = 0.142). The optimal cut-off value for HbA1c to diagnose diabetes was $ 6.3% (45 mmol/mol). The sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 65.6% (53.1–76.3%), 94.5% (93.1–95.6%), 80.0% (72.8–87.3%), respectively. However, using cut-off value of $ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) improved specificity. At this cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 57.4% (44.9–69.0%), 97.1% (96.0–97.9%) and 77.3% (71.0–83.5%). For diagnosing prediabetes with HbA1c between 5.7–6.4% (39–46 mmol/mol), the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 62.7% (57.1–67.9%), 56.3% (53.1–59.4%) and 59.5% (56.3–62.5%), respectively. HbA1c at cut-off value of $ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) by itself diagnosed 5.3% and 48.3% as having diabetes and prediabetes compared to 4.5% and 24.2% using FPG, respectively. Mean HbA1c and FPG increase significantly with increasing body mass index. In conclusion, the ROC curves showed HbA1c could be used for diagnosing diabetes when compared to FPG but not for prediabetes in Palestinians Arabs even though only about 50% of the diabetic subjects were identified by the both HbA1c and FPG.