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- ItemAssessment of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Lactating Women Visiting Al-Remal Primary Healthcare Clinic in Gaza, Palestine(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Nassar, RawanBreastfeeding has many health benefits for both the mother and infant. Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs for the first six months of life. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia. It may also have long-term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant receives only breast milk. No other liquids or solids are given – not even water – with the exception of oral rehydration solution or drops/syrups of vitamins, minerals or medicines. The results of the PMS study in 2013 show that exclusive breastfeeding in GS is 55%, meanwhile in WB it is 52.9%, and in the state of Palestine it is 53.9%. The World Health Organization estimates that around 220,000 children could be saved each year with exclusive breastfeeding. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, development, and health. The Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding describes the essential interventions to promote, protect and support breastfeeding. In order to survive, grow, and develop properly, infants require the right proportion of nutrients. Breast milk is rich in nutrients and antibodies and contains the right quantities of fat, sugar, water, and protein. These nutrients are major prerequisites to the wellbeing and survival of the baby. When a child is exclusively breastfed, their immune system is strengthened, enabling it to prevent life-threatening illnesses like pneumonia and diarrhea amongst other infections. In fact, reports indicate that newborns who are not breastfed for the first six months of life are 15 times more likely to die from pneumonia compared to those who are breastfed exclusively for six months after birth.
- ItemAssessment of Factors Associated with Obesity among Gaza Secondary Schools’ Female Students in Palestine(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Al Najjar, DoaGlobally, obesity has increased among children, adolescents, and adults. At least 2.8 million people die each year worldwide as a result of being overweight or obese; mortality rates have shown to be proportional to the degree of obesity. Younger age groups are affected as demonstrated in nearly one-third of American college students who are overweight or obese. According to the WHO, 30–80% of adults and about 20% of children and adolescents in Europe are overweight. The situation in Asia is better; this is shown in the lower prevalence of obesity in Thailand and China. With obesity becoming an overwhelming global public health issue, there are a multitude of obesity-associated diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and certain cancers. Although obesity in adolescence is less prominently associated with morbidity, it is nevertheless a strong precursor of obesity and related morbidity in adulthood. Adolescence has been identified as a critical period in the development of overweight/obesity patterns, with the transition to college being another potentially important period of risk for weight increase among young adults. Individual behaviors and environmental factors can contribute to excess caloric intake and inadequate amounts of physical activity. The current high rates of obesity have been attributed to, in part, increased snacking and eating away from home, larger portion sizes, greater exposure to food advertising, limited access to physical activity opportunities, and labor-saving technological advances (Duffey & Popkin, 2011; Piernas & Popkin, 2011; Powell et al., 2011;Sallis &; Glanz, 2009). Childhood and adolescent obesity have increased substantially in the past two decades raising concerns about the physical and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity. In Palestine, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing for decades for both males and females in all age groups. It is about 18% in adult males and 26% in adult females.
- ItemAssessment of Quality of Life for Thalassemia Patients in Palestine(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Ashour, FareehaThalassemia is the most common hemoglobin disorder in the world; it is a critical issue in the Arab world and Palestine. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the disease and its comorbidities on Palestinian patients’ quality of life, their adherence to iron chelators and satisfaction to health services provided to them. A cross-sectional study enrolled 25 patients of thalassemia major and intermedia from different cities in Palestine. These patients were evaluated for their quality of life using short form-36 questionnaire that consists of two domains (physical component summary-PMC, mental component summary- MCS). The overall scores for each item and for each domain were obtained, ranging from 0 to 100. 0-20 reflect poor, 20-40 reflect bad, 40-60 reflect good, 60-80 reflect very good, and 80-100 reflect excellent. In general, the highest score appears for the social functioning (80.5 ± 4.49) and the lowest one was for physical role (52 ± 9.79). The scores of thalassemia major (PCS 70.80 ± 11.84, MCS 66.47±12.91) were higher than thalassemia intermedia (PCS 61.01± 11.83, MCS 63.74± 8.26). Patients who transfused 12 Units/Year (U/Y) (PCS 63.19 ±12.80, MCS 63.78±11.69) acquired lower scores than patients who transfused 12-24 U/Y (PCS 77.32 ±10.62, MCS 73.43 ±9.57). Adherent patients (PCS 69.28±15.19, MCS 71.20 ±11.58) acquired higher scores than non-adherent patients (PCS 60.32 ±12.52, MCS 59.23 ±9.93). Only 56% of patients were adherent to their iron chelators while 44% were non-adherent. Mean value of patient satisfaction was higher in the north (72.5± 14.19) compared to the south (32.14±30.11) of Palestine. There is a huge need to exert more efforts to improve the quality of life (QoL) for thalassemia patients, since thalassemia has an influence on QoL and limits the physical functioning, mental health, vitality, general health and other physical and emotional abilities. Strategies need to be implemented to increase the adherence to iron chelators and patient satisfaction. A follow-up study that includes higher number of patients from different cities in Palestine is needed.
- ItemAssociation between Iron Deficiency among School Students Aged 6-12 y and Their Learning Abilities in Rafah and Beit Lahiya Cities in Palestine(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Khalifa, Amal; Ghaben, KafaZinc deficiency is believed to be widespread, especially in low income countries like Palestine. Approximately, 80% of school age children have zinc deficiency. It is reported that micronutrient deficiencies further debilitate health and learning by shunting growth and impairing intellectual development that may significantly reduce learning abilities. The exact burden of zinc deficiency among primary school children and its impacts on learning abilities is not known. Thus, there is an ultimate need to figure out the association between zinc deficiency and impaired intellectual development causing reduced learning abilities. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency among primary school children in urban settings in North and South of Gaza Strip, to find an association with learning abilities, and to identify other possible contributing factors. A case-control study will be conducted in which 120 school-aged children will be recruited. Furthermore, they will be divided into a case group of subjects characterized by low zinc serum levels and a control group characterized by normal zinc serum levels. Data on anthropometrics measurements, biochemical analysis of zinc serum levels, and the learning abilities via school exams scores will be collected. All obtained data will be analyzed via SPSS version 22.
- ItemCancer and Vitamin B17(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Aboud, MahmoudLaetrile, also called amygdalin or vitamin B17, is a popular alternative for cancer treatment. These treatments contain purified amygdalin which is a compound found naturally in the seeds of many fruits. When it is ingested the body breaks down laetrile into three compounds consisting of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, and prunasin. Hydrogen cyanide appears to be the primary anticancer ingredient in laetrile. There are four possible theories on how laetrile may fight cancer; two theories state that cancer cells are rich in enzymes that convert laetrile into cyanide. Since cyanide kills cells, this means that cancer cells may break down laetrile and kill the cancerous cells. The third theory suggests that cancer is caused by a deficiency in vitamin B17 (amygdalin). The last theory proposes that hydrogen cyanide, which is made by breaking down laetrile, will make cancer cells more acidic and cause them to die. Some studies were made to determine the effect of Laetrile on cancer. There were two animal studies during which scientists treated a variety of cancers with laetrile alone or combined with an enzyme that helps activate it. In both studies, animals did not show any improvement after being treated with laetrile. In one study, 178 people with cancer were treated with laetrile; however, scientists found that it had no significant effect on cancer. In fact, some people experienced cyanide poisoning. In another other study, six people with cancer were treated with laetrile. Scientists found that laetrile did not help treat cancer, as each individual’s cancer continued to spread. Lastly, a few test-tube studies have shown that laetrile may reduce the occurrence of tumors by suppressing genes that help them spread. However, there’s no evidence that this same effect will occur in living human bodies.
- ItemDietary Intake, Eating Behaviors and Food Insecurity among Obese Palestinian Children and Adolescents in Gazan Schools(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Wadi, RanaThe double burden of malnutrition can be clearly shown among food insecure children. Not only do they show micronutrient deficiency, but they also show increased obesity rates. Many factors influence the incidence of obesity among these age groups, including dietary intakes, eating habits and household food insecurity. Finding the correlation between dietary habits, and eating behaviors and linking them with household food insecurity may contribute in figuring a clearer understanding of obesity onset among this age group. Exploring the intermediate causes and associated factors that contribute to the increasing incidence of obesity may help lower the burden of malnutrition among children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study; one hundred and thirty obese children and adolescents enrolled in Gazan schools will be recruited to measure their dietary habits, eating behaviors and household food insecurity. A structured questionnaire will be used. The data obtained will be analyzed using SPSS version 20. Consent forms will be obtained from fathers and mothers.
- ItemKnowledge, Attitude and Practices of Palestinian University Students Regarding Vitamin D(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Qawasmi, Shahd; Al-Handi, SadiyaVitamin D is one of the fat-soluble vitamins; the sun is the main source for it. It is important in increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc. Vitamin D is vital for bone growth and other multiple biological effects. Therefore, its deficiency or imbalance will lead to major problems. This study evaluated the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding vitamin D (D-KAP) in a sample of Palestinian university students. A cross sectional study was performed. Data collection forms were distributed in six Palestinian universities totaling 400 completed forms during the period of January to March 2019. The Analysis was performed using (IBM SPSS) version 23 for Windows. Correlation tests were used to determine the association between the socio-demographic data and the D-KAP study. These completed forms found that, knowledge wise, 57.8% of the students had poor knowledge about vitamin D, while 42.2% of them had a good general knowledge. In terms of awareness, 53.8% were found to be unaware about vitamin D, while 46.3% have good awareness. In terms of practice, 57.5% had bad practice, while 42.5% of the participants were found to have good practice. Our results indicated that the majority of the Palestinian university students had poor knowledge, bad attitude and negative practices toward vitamin D. Therefore, an important step should be addressed toward raising awareness and ensuring the right education and knowledge regarding vitamin D in the Palestinian community.
- ItemPrevalence and Severity of Gingivitis in High School Students in Gaza Strip(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Mehjez, AshrafIn order to create a healthy society, we have to take care of the cornerstone of the health community which is mainly formed by high school students. One of the most prevalent oral diseases that begins to develop early in childhood are periodontal diseases. As a consequence of these diseases, if not treated on time, the destructive processes progress in both hard and soft tissues eventually leading to loss of teeth, Gingivitis is one of these diseases. It involves the inflammation of only the gingiva and is reversible when appropriate treatment measures are used. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and severity of gingivitis in high school students in Gaza Strip in Palestine. The study design used was cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical. The population used as participants in the study was high school students in Gaza Strip governorates. Three hundred and fifty high school students aged between 14 to 18 years were recruited in this study. For periodontal examination, William’s graduated periodontal will be used as well as, Plaque Index (PI) to assess dental plaque, and Gingival Index (GI) to assess gingival inflammation. Also, a questionnaire will be used to collect the socio-demographic and health conditions of the students. The data of the study will be entered and analyzed by SPSS program and presented as frequency tables, and charts. The relationship between gingivitis and other independent socio-demographic factors will be examined by significance statistical tests, such as t- tests, ANOVA, and chi-square test.
- ItemPrevalence of Chronic Diseases in Palestinian Geriatrics and Common Pharmacological Interventions: A Cross-Sectional Study(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Najjar, AnasGeriatrics are more susceptible to have multiple medical disorders due to different physiology and, hence, are more subjected to polypharmacy. This study investigates the prevalence of chronic diseases and medical conditions, used medications, and associated socio-demographic factors among the Palestinian geriatrics population. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during June 2013 and January 2014. The study population was Palestinian geriatrics ≥ 60 years old living in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Interview-aided questionnaires were completed for participants by the surveying team. The questionnaires comprised of personal and socio-economical data, health condition, current medication, and medication knowledge and adherence. A total of 1192 Palestinian geriatrics participated in this study. The average participant age was 70.3 (SD=8.58) and ranged from 60-110 years. The sample comprised 659 (55.30%) females and 533 (44.70%) males. The majority of participants were retired or unemployed (83.60%), 81.90% were non-smokers, and 61.80% were married. Forty unique chronic diseases and conditions were reported. The mean number of diseases reported per participant was 2.33 (SD=1.68) and ranged from 0-11 conditions. These were divided into ten groups according to body systems. Cardiovascular, endocrine, and musculoskeletal conditions were most reported. 175 unique drugs were reported. The mean number of drugs per participant was 4.54 (SD= 2.83) and ranged from 1-17 drugs. The total number of drugs was strongly correlated with the total number of conditions (1192)= 0.628, p> 0.001. Commonly prescribed therapeutic agents were aspirin (575 incidents), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (403), diuretics (409), metformin (323), paracetamol (270), and proton pump inhibitors (275). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prevalence study of chronic diseases among Palestinian geriatrics which comprised a large number of participants from all districts in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. These results provide information and recommendations that should be considered by Palestinian physicians, pharmacists, health professionals, and health policy makers.
- ItemReducing Lipid Levels in Mothers Using Contraceptives by Herbal Extract in Gaza Strip(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Al Qahwaghe, OmarA contraceptive is a chemical substance used to prevent pregnancy. It produces many effects, such as increasing the level of body fats. In many cases, heart and blood diseases are not seen, however a contraceptive may worsen the patient’s condition if they already had the disease before administration of the contraceptive. A plant with high sweetening capacity attributed to its content of glycosides can be used to reduce body fat. The aim is to decrease lipid profile levels and to lower the risk factors in women using contraceptive drugs by herbal extracts. Experimental study: The experiment can be conducted two ways. One way involves extracting, purifying and analyzing the compound from the herbs by chromatographic techniques. Clinical trials: These include a test on the liver and kidney functions in nonpregnant rabbits, a test on the rabbits’ breast milk and the effect of the extract on the baby, and a test measuring the lipid profile of the rabbits four different times.
- ItemThe Relationship between Contraceptive Hormone Use with Serum Lipid Profile and Electrolytes in Gazan Women(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Abu Harab, InasHormonal contraception is a birth control method that acts on the endocrine system. Some studies in pre-menopausal women using OTCs have shown minimal lipid profile changes. Other studies have shown alterations in the level of serum electrolytes with the use of injectable contraceptives. The current cross-sectional study aims to determine the relationship between contraceptive hormone use with serum lipid profile and serum electrolyte levels. The study will use data from the antenatal care units of primary healthcare centers of Ministry of Health in Gaza. Two hundred women of childbearing age attending their antenatal care appointments during the period of study will be recruited by a systematic random sampling process as participants in the study. Prepared questionnaires will be used to collect the data of the study. These questionnaires consist of five domains which include socio-demographic information, health condition, gyno-obstetric condition, history of contraceptive use and laboratory investigation results. Trained personnel will fill out the questionnaires by interviewing the women. A blood sample will be taken from the women under the supervision of the physician in the center and will be sent to the laboratory of the University of Palestine for examination. Follow up records of women could be reviewed for confirmation of some conditions related to the health of the women. All data obtained from the questionnaires, such as blood lipid profile values (HDL/LDL ratio, LDL/HDL ratio, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio) will be entered and analyzed in SPSS. Certain tests will be used in the analysis including, frequency and distribution, student t-test, and chi square test. The results of the current study may help in providing indicators for potential risks of dyslipidemia or vascular disorders associated with contraceptive use among women in Gaza.