دور التجارة العادلة في تحسين الظروف الاقتصادية والاجتماعية لمزارعي محاصيل (الزيتون، اللوز، القمح، الزعتر) المنضمين لها في محافظتي جنين وطوباس
هنادي امجد وليد موسى
Hanadi Amjed Waleed Mousa
This study aims to identify the role of fair trade in improving the socio-economic conditions of farmers mainly growing; olive for oil production, almonds, wheat, and thyme for farmers who are part of fair trade in Jenin and Tubas governorates, the impact of fair trade on the total gross margin, total cultivated area, applying organic farming practices, and joining Agricultural Cooperatives was studied. Farmers got good training on production practices, as well as their impact on the number of family or non-family workers on the farm, and the role of fair trade in improving farmers' economic and social conditions from their point of view. The study followed the descriptive approach, adopting a Stratified random sample of 288 farmers from olive, wheat, almond, thyme involved in fair trade in Jenin and Tubas governorates, where the data was collected using questionnaire and interview of all farmers within the study sample, and the SPSS program was used for data analysis. The results of the study indicated that the largest rate of change among farmers as a result of fair trade, was in their training on good production practices where 48.2% of farmers were encouraged by fair trade to receive training on good production practices, and 45.7% of farmers were led by fair trade to join cooperatives, as well as 35.9% of farmers turned to perform organic farming practices, in addition to; fair trade led to an increase in the number of workers for 17.0% of farmers, while 3.4% of farmers increased the number of their family members working on the farm. On the other hand, 5.2% of farmers, fair-trade was the reason behind an increase in the total area under cultivation they have. The study results also revealed that fair-trade contributes to increasing the gross profit margin of fair trade farmers in the governorates of Jenin and Tubas, as it contributed to a 39.3% increase in the total profit margin for all the study crops. The highest rate of growth was for the wheat crop by 53.3%. The increase in the other crops profit margin was 42.2% for olive, 22.4% for thyme, and the almond crop was the lowest percentage by 18.1%. The results also found that fair-trade contributes to a moderate degree in improving the economic and social conditions of farmers joining it in the governorates of Jenin and Tubas, and contributes significantly to increasing farmers' income and having a stable income for them, in addition to its effect on their feeling of economic stability and satisfaction with the prices they get from trade It also contributes to their ability to pay off debts, while its contribution to farmers' ability to obtain loans within cooperative was low, and in social terms, fair-trade contributes to increasing relations between farmers locally and encourages cooperative work among them, as a result of their organization in Fairtrade cooperatives, while the results showed the little contribution of fair trade to farmers' ability to access health care. The study concluded with a set of conclusions and recommendations, the most important of is that women participation in fair trade is still limited and that most farmers own small to medium-sized holdings, with a good proportion of relatively large holders. Also, that agriculture falls within fair trade. It depends to a large extent on the family's work on the farm, and that agriculture is the main source of income for these families. 81.2% of families depend on growing crops that are sold under fair trade, and that the olive crop is the most important crop sold in fair trade from the farmers’ point of view. The study recommended the necessity of having an official department concerned with fair trade and regulating farmers' working within it, support women to increase their participation in fair trade, and to invite farmers to join it because of the benefits it brings to them, in addition to conducting studies that investigate the fair trade supply chain in Palestine and studies that look into the impact of fair trade on the local market, supply and demand of agricultural products, especially olive oil.