أعراض القلق والاكتئاب لدى الأكاديميين المنتظمين في جامعتي القدس وبيرزيت
ميس زهير جميل هدمي
Mais Zuhair Hedmi
The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression symptoms among regular academics at Al-Quds and Birzeit Universities, and their relationship to some independent variables, using the descriptive correlative approach. The study sample consisted of (214) respondents; they were selected by a stratified sampling method, and a questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting respondents' data. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, including demographic information, Beck Depression Scale (BDI) (1961), translated by Abdel-Khalek (1996), and Spielberger Scale of State and Trait Anxiety (STAI) (1970), translated by Al-Behairi (1984). The data were processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS V.23) program, through several statistical methods, including: frequencies, percentages, arithmetic means and standard deviations Moreover, the study hypotheses were tested through the following statistical tests, T-test, Anova, Scheffe test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cronbach Alpha to test stability. The results had shown that 63% of the respondents had no depressive symptoms and 32.7% had depressive symptoms based on the cut of point of BDI that is <17. As for the level of depression, the study showed that 19.2% of the sample had mild depressive symptoms, 11.2% had moderate depressive symptoms, 4.7% had severe depressive symptoms and 0.5% had very severe depressive symptoms. In addition, the study results revealed that 69.2% of the respondents had moderate anxiety state symptoms, 13.1% had severe anxiety state symptoms, and 15% had mild anxiety state symptoms. In addition, 68.2% of the participants had moderate symptoms of trait anxiety, 9.3% had severe symptoms of trait anxiety and 20.6% had mild symptoms of trait anxiety. Furthermore, about the relationship between state anxiety symptoms and the independent variables, the results revealed that there are no statistically significant differences in the means and level of state anxiety symptoms based on the following variables; (academic rank, college, and years of work, type of housing, marital status, annual academic load and type of students). While there were no significant, statistical differences in the means and level of trait anxiety symptoms with all the independent variables. On the other hands, the study showed the existence of statistically significant differences at (α ≤ 0.05) in the means and level of state anxiety symptoms based on the following variables: gender in favour of females, age in favour of respondents (22-40 years) old; income in favour of those with incomes between (1,000 - 1,500 JD.); region of residence in favour of those who live in north of the West Bank; university in favour of Al-Quds university; the administrative position in favour to those who work in an administrative position; scientific rank in favour of those who have a bachelor's degree and the number of children in favour of those who have less than four. و In regard to the relationship between the prevalence of depression symptoms and the independent variables, the results revealed that there are no statistically significant differences at the level (α 0.05) in the means and level of depression symptoms based on the following variables: (gender, age, marital status, monthly income, area of residence, place of residence, administrative position, type of students, academic rank, years of work and type of housing). Moreover, the study showed the existence of statistically significant differences at (α ≤ 0.05) in the means and level of depression symptoms based on the following variables: university in favour of Al-Quds university, annual academic load in favour of those who has less than 24 academic hour, scientific rank in favour of those who have a bachelor's degree, college in favour of health colleges and number of children in favour of those who have less than four. Finally, there was a strong positive correlation between the dependent study variables of depression and anxiety (state and trait). In light of these findings, the study came out with some recommendations to decision-makers in universities and researchers in the field of mental health. Such as developing specialized counselling programs to improve the psychological situation of academics and reduce anxiety and depression, and employ specialists in the field of psychological support and counselling, whereas specialized services are established that care for mental health of staff at Al-Quds and Birzeit Uuniversities.