Community Mental Health
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- ItemPrevalence of Mental Health Problems among Cerebral Palsy Children from Age 6-12 Years in Gaza Strip(Al-Quds University, 2010-07-07) Salah Ahmad Saleh; صلاح أحمد صالحThis study aimed to estimate the prevalence of mental health problems among cerebral palsy children aged 6-12 years old. A cross sectional method was chosen registered children aged 6-12 years-old at the physiotherapy clinics in the Gaza Strip. A systematic random sample of 219 children suffering from cerebral palsy were selected and their parents were interviewed using the Achenbach child behavior checklist (CBCL), also teacher report form (TRF) was used for physiotherapist. The results indicated that, the prevalence of mental health problems rated by parents was (37%). While, the prevalence of mental health problems rated by therapist was (44.7%). Boys had higher mean than girls regarding aggressive behavior rated by parents, whereas, interaction was observed between boys and girls regarding total problems, withdrawn problems, attention problems and aggressive behavior by therapist. Boys had more mental health problems as rated by both parents and therapist checklists. A correlation was observed between boys and girls regarding aggressive behavior rated by parents. Whereas, a correlation was observed between boys and girls regarding total problems, withdrawn problems, attention problems and aggressive behavior by therapist. Also , the results revealed a statistical significant differences between children mental health problems rated by parents. namely anxious depressed, attention problems, delinquent problems and aggressive behavior and gender in favor to boys. Additionally, total problems, withdrawn problems, delinquent problems, aggressive behavior and externalizing problems rated by therapist were statistically significant with age. Furthermore, the results indicated a significant statistical differences between place of residency and total problems, internalizing problems and externalizing problems rated by therapist, that’s in favor to the children who reside in village. While, a significant statistical differences was observed between place of residency and total problems and internalizing problems rated by parents, that’s in favor to the children who reside in village. However, interaction was observed between household monthly income and total problems and internalizing problems rated by therapist, in favor monthly income less than 300$ per month. Total problems, internalizing and externalizing problems were significantly associated with types of cerebral palsy when rated by therapist. Whereas, internalizing and externalizing problems were significantly associated with types of cerebral palsy when rated by parents. Despite certain limitations, although few sociodemographic differences in CBCL and TRF were found, a longitudinal prospective studies on child behavior is recommended.
- ItemPhysicians’ Compliance with the Palestinian Essential Drug List in Primary Health Care in Gaza Strip(Al-Quds University, 2010-10-10) Rasha Mohamed Fattouh; رشا محمد فتوحThe presence of Essential Drugs List is considered very important component in any national drug policy, and its implementation helps in rationalization of drug use. The Palestinian EDL, was developed on March 1st 2000, and since then, there wasn’t any evaluation for its implementation and use, which is widely considered the most important step after its development. This study aims to evaluate the compliance of the Gaza Strip physicians with the Palestinian EDL in the governmental PHC clinics, and assesses the physician knowledge, attitudes, and prescribing practices regarding the essential drugs. The study was conducted in all the governmental PHC clinics in the Gaza Strip. A descriptive cross sectional design using triangulation of data was utilized. The sample included all the PHC physicians who were working in the governmental PHC clinics in the five governorates of Gaza Strip, who completed self administered questionnaire. Additionally, a retrospective multistage sample consists of 1656 prescriptions, 36 prescriptions from each of the 46 clinics were taken and examined in reference to the study indicators. The response rate was 87.68% and the study showed that, only 2.8% of the respondents were involved in the preparation of the EDL, 34.4% of the respondents attended training courses on EDL, 67.4% of the respondents reported currently using the EDL, and 51.2% of the respondents faced many problems in using the EDL. More importantly, the study showed that, the average number of drugs prescribed per each prescription was 1.92; the percentage of drugs prescribed from the EDL was 97.85 %, the percentage of drugs prescribed by generic names was 5.47%, the availability of a copy of PNF in the surveyed clinics was 28.3%, and the availability of key drugs was 82.6%. The study concluded that, there are a number of problems regarding the physicians compliance with the EDL, and considering the study results, the researcher provided some recommendations such as, provision of training, strengthening monitoring, evaluation and follow up, updating of the first EDL and promoting the lines of communications between policy makers and physicians.
- ItemThe Prevalence of Self-Destructive Behavior and its Relationship to Attachment Styles among Young Palestinian Adults in the Governorates of Bethlehem and Hebron(Al-Quds University, 2021-12-20) Amanda Mohammad Mousa Manasra; أماندا محمد موسى مناصرة. هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى التعرف إلى مدى انتشار السلوك المدمر للذات وعلاقته بأنماط التعلق (الآمن، الرافض، المتناقض، وغير المنظم) لدى الشباب الفلسطينيين في محافظتي بيت لحم والخليل، والتحقق من الإختلافات في مستوى السلوك المدمر للذات تبعاً لمتغيرات الدراسة )العمر، الجنس، مستوى التعليم، حالة العمل، الوضع الزواجي، منطقة السكن، مكان السكن، الوضع الزواجي للأهل، التعرض المؤخر للعنف أو حدث صادم، الدين، التدين. إستخدمت الدراسة مزيجا من طريقة العينة المتاحة وكرة الثلج لإختيار (412) مشارك ومشاركة عبر الإنترنت، وتم جمع البيانات من خلال تطبيق مقياس أنماط التعلق (ASQ) ومقياس على شكل لائحة معيارية تم تطويره من قبل الباحثة لقياس السلوك المدمر للذات بعد التأكد من صدقهما وثباتهما، وذلك ضمن المنهجية الوصفية الترابطية. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن مستوى السلوك المدمر للذات جاء بدرجة متوسطة (44.9%)، وأن أكثر محاور السلوك المدمر للذات إنتشارا كان "الفشل في الرعاية الذاتية الروتينية أو الأولية" (M=1.74)، ثم "إشكاليات التنظيم الذاتي" (M=1.53)، ثم "السلوكيات الجنسية والعاطفية الإجتماعية" (M=1.21)، ثم "السلوكيات الخطيرة، المثيرة، المتحدية، والجنائية" (M=1.09)، ثم "إستخدام المواد وسلوكيات ذات علاقة بالإدمان" (M=0.85)، ونهاية "إيذاء الذات المباشر والسلوك الإنتحاري" (M=0.77). وفيما يتعلق بمتغيرات الدراسة، وجدت النتائج أن هناك فروق ذات دلالة في مستوى السلوك المدمر للذات تبعا للجنس، ومستوى التعليم، والوضع الزواجي للأهل، والتعرض المؤخر للعنف أو حدث صادم، والدين، والتدين فقط. كما وأن النتائج أشارت إلى أن الفروق في متغير الجنس بين "أنثى" و"ذكر" كانت لصالح "ذكر"، وفي متغير مستوى التعليم بين "الدبلوم" و"البكالورويس" لصالح "الدبلوم"، وفي متغير الوضع الزواجي للأهل بين "أحد الوالدين متوفيين / كلا الوالدين متوفيين" و"متزوجين" لصالح "أحد الوالدين متوفيين / كلا الوالدين متوفيين"، وفي متغير "التعرض المؤخر للعنف أو حدث صادم" بين "نعم" و"لا" لصالح "نعم"، وفي متغير الدين بين "مسيحي" و"مسلم" لصالح "مسيحي" وبين "غير ذلك" و"مسلم" لصالح "غير ذلك"، ونهاية في متغير التدين بين "غير متدين" و"متدين جدا" لصالح "غير متدين". وأما حول أنماط التعلق، أشارت النتائج لكون أكثر الأنماط شيوعيا نمط التعلق الرافض ، ثم النمط غير المنظم، ثم النمط الآمن، ونهاية النمط المتناقض. ولم تجد النتائج علاقة ذات دلالة بين السلوك المدمر للذات ونمط التعلق الآمن، بينما وجدت علاقة طردية ذات دلالة بين السلوك المدمر للذات وكل من نمط التعلق الرافض، والنمط غير المنظم، والنمط المتناقض. وأشار التحليل الإضافي للنتائج أن هناك علاقة ذات دلالة بين نمط التعلق الآمن مع محاور السلوك المدمر للذات "الفشل في الرعاية الذاتية الروتينية أو الأولية" و"إشكاليات التنظيم الذاتي"، وبين نمط التعلق غير المنظم ومحاور السلوك المدمر للذات "الفشل في الرعاية الذاتية الروتينية أو الأولية" و"السلوكيات الجنسية والعاطفية الإجتماعية" و"السلوكيات الخطيرة، المثيرة، المتحدية، والجنائية"، وبين كلا النمطين الرافض والمتناقض وكافة محاور السلوك المدمر للذات.
- Itemالعلاقة بين مفهوم الذات ومفهوم الموت لدى طلاب مدارس مدینتي ا رم الله والبيرة(Al-Quds University, 2020-01-19) تسنيم محمد علي عامر; Tasneem Mohammad Ali AmerThis study aimed to identify the relationship between self-concept and perception of death, for students in schools of Ramallah and Al-Bireh cities. As well as to identify the association between some variables and their relationship with self-concept and perception of death. The population of the study represented students in the schools of Ramallah and Al-Bireh cities whose ages were between (9-16) years during the year 2018-2019 with total of 12370 students. 319 students were collected using available sample. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the descriptive approach as she used a questionnaire to collect data, it consists of three sections: Demographic Information, Casey's Death Concept Scale (1997) and Pierce Hairs Self Concept Scale (1982). The results of the study showed that the level of self-concept was positive with a rate of 55%. In addition, the results showed that 63% of the students were aware of the concept of death in general and that they were able to recognize all of the concepts of death, where the percentage of response ranged between (52% - 80.3%). The results indicated a positive correlation between self-concept and the perception of death among the students. also The results of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences at the level (α ≤ 0.05) between the self-concept and some variables of the study. It was found that there were differences according to the variable of the father's education level in favor of the fathers who holds (preparatory / secondary) education, and the mother's educational level in favor of the mother with a higher academic qualification, where the degree of self-concept was more positive. And the existence of differences depending on the variables place of residence for the benefit of students who lives in the village, age for the age group 13-15 years, sex for the favor of females, and for those students who go to the public schools, where their self-concept was more positive. Students who have married parents have self-concepts that are more positive. The results of the study indicated that there are statistically significant differences between the perception of death and some study variables at the level of significance (α ≤ 0.05) depending on the father's educational level in favor of the father who holds (preparatory / secondary) education. The results showed that the perception of the concept of death was better, as that perceptions of death was more realistic for students who live in the village, better for students aged 13-15, and students who have one of their parents dead, had a better perception of death. The researcher recommended a set of recommendations for the benefit of future Researchers, psychologists, and decision-makers at the official government level and private institutions. The most important was to increase attention to the subjects of self-concept and death concept among children. It is essential to provide a supportive and stimulating environment for self-understanding and discovery to ensure that it promotes the positive self-concept in all dimensions. Further studies are needed to be studied.
- ItemPsychological Well-Being and Depression Symptoms Among Emergency Departments’ Medical Staff of Gaza Governmental Hospitals(Al-Quds University, 2021-01-16) Osama Mohammed Hammad Abdou; اسامة محمد حماد عبدوThe psychological well-being of emergency medical staff working in general hospitals is a public health concern locally and internationally. Emergency departments in Gaza serve in a complex context with an overstressed health system that was weakened through the repetitive rounds of violence for the last 15 years. Socio-cultural attitudes towards emergency medical services in Gaza general hospitals continue to be a source of overload and pressure upon emergency medical teams who are expected to resume their roles with high quality continuously despite the severe shortages in tools, equipment, technical support, and human resources. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the level of psychological well-being and depressive symptoms among emergency medical staff in Gaza General Hospitals. Methodology: The design of this study is mixed-method and was conducted among emergency medical staff at governmental hospitals in Gaza using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Warwick Psychological Well-being Scale (WPWS). Besides, three focus group interviews were conducted among emergency medical staff from 3 major hospitals representing North, Middle, and South Governorates in the Gaza Strip. Results: A total of 202 emergency medical staff participated in the study and filled the study questionnaires. 54.5% of the participants reported high psychological well-being, 43% indicated moderate psychological well-being. More than two-thirds (72.3%) of study participants indicated not having depressive symptoms, 18.3% had mild depressive symptoms, 7.4% had moderate depressive symptoms and 2% had severe depression, added to that, 0.5% of participants had moderate depressive symptoms and Low Psychological well-being. Study results also found a statistically significant inverse relationship between psychological well-being and depressive symptoms, where an increase by 1 point on the psychological well-being scale leads to a decrease of 0.5 in depressive symptoms. Demographic variables including gender, age, academic degrees, place of residence, duty station, and years of experience were not found statistically significant in our sample for psychological well-being. For the qualitative part, most staff indicated that they feel good about their mental well-being and feel that they have the skills to cope with stressful working conditions as they have accumulated experience throughout their years of work, however, they reported high stress levels in their work environment in the emergency departments. Conclusion: Emergency medical staff working at Gaza Governmental Hospitals screened showed high levels of psychological well-being and low depressive symptoms, despite lacking governmental preventive actions to ensure good psychological health among emergency medical staff. Besides, urgent action should be taken by public health decision-makers towards the design and promotion of specialized mental health and psychosocial support services targeting those 10% of emergency medical staff who showed moderate-severe degrees of depressive symptoms. Keywords: Psychological Well-being; Depression Symptoms, medical staff, emergency department, Gaza strip