الحركات الاحتجاجية في مدينة القدس2009 -2019
مهند ماهر محمد علي حرزالله
Mohannad Maher Mohammad Hirzallah
The study aimed to identify the protest movements in Jerusalem as one of the popular resistance methods used by the Palestinians in their resistance to the Israeli occupation, and their clinging to their land, in addition to exploring the role and impact of these protest movements in stopping or minimizing and reducing Israeli violations towards the Holy City and its residents. The importance of the study lies in revealing the method of protest movements as one of the methods of popular resistance, which is not less important than other methods, and the ability of the popular resistance to achieve urgent and future field victories in the face of the Israeli occupation. The study relied on the historical approach, the descriptive and analytical approach, and the method of systems analysis, by employing events and facts of the past to enrich it, and promoting related issues through it. The study was divided into an introduction and five chapters, the first chapter dealt with the theoretical framework and study plan and the most prominent previous studies, while the second chapter dealt with the concept of protest movements, their characteristics and tools and the most important theories explaining the protest movements, while the third chapter dealt with the status of Jerusalem in Israeli policy and Israeli violations towards Jerusalem and its residents in the political, civil, economic, social and religious aspects, and The fourth chapter dealt with the emergence of protest movements Jerusalem after Al-Aqsa Intifada, the most important tools and methods used and the challenges faced by the protest movements in Jerusalem, and finally the fifth chapter dealt with the most prominent protest movements in Jerusalem with the political, religious and social character and its role in the face of Israeli violations, whether to stop it or reduce or at least not to show the surrender of the Jerusalemites. The study confirmed that Jerusalem is subject to continuous Israeli violations, targeting it to Judaize and displace its original citizens (Palestinians), and uses ح all available means, from economic tightening, restricting movement and movement, confiscation and swallowing lands, Judaization settlement, and the separation wall, and trying to divide the Aqsa Mosque timely spatially, and other such means. The study concluded a set of results, the most prominent of which are: that the Jerusalem protest movements were able to achieve field victories and stop some violations and Israeli plans towards the Al-Aqsa Mosque and Jerusalem city, such as the donation of Al-Aspat gate (electronic gates), Al-Khan al-Ahmar, and Al-Rahma gate's protestation, and the Jerusalemites worked to accumulate their victories, and the continued methods' development of protest movements. But in other cases, the protest movements did not achieve field victories and tangible results except local popular solidarity on a limited level, and sometimes the participation of foreign solidarity in very few numbers, and it was unable to stop Israeli violations, such as marches against the separation wall in some villages where the Israeli authorities confiscated Palestinian lands to expand its settlements. In contrast, the protest movements in Jerusalem, as one of the methods of popular resistance, face a number of challenges and obstacles, most notably: the Palestinian schism, the lack of a coherent strategy, the absence of tangible achievements in many cases, the absence of coordination between the networks of activists competing with each other, the absence of coordination between factions National action, official authority institutions and Jerusalemite institutions, and other challenges. The study recommended that the leaders of the Palestinian national action in Jerusalem and all the Palestinian territories need to agree on a coherent national action strategy that works to strengthen protest movements and popular resistance, and to enhance the resilience of Jerusalemites in their city in the face of continuing Israeli violations.