أثر الجدار الفاصل على الأوضاع الاقتصادية والاجتماعية ووضع الأمن الغذائي لمنطقة رام الله
الاء إسماعيل محمود إسماعيل
Alaa Ismaeel Mahmoud Ismaeel
Since the outbreak of Al-Aqsa uprising in the year 2000, all the economic and social aspects have been deteriorating due to the arbitrary unjust measures of the Israeli occupation against the Palestinians. Such measures have aimed at extracting the largest area possible of Palestinian lands by confiscating Palestinian lands to build settlements and security and bypassing roads in addition to the infamous crime which is represented by building the separation wall on Palestinian lands . Construction of the wall started in the year 2002 and it is considered one of the largest projects carried out by the Hebrew state in the year 2002 against the Palestinian people . The total length of the wall will reach 788 kilometers which is five times the length of the infamous Berlin Wall and twice as high . The racial separation wall consists in fact of tow walls : the first wall is the main one which extends along the Green Line to separate the Palestinian concentrations from Israel . The second wall is the secondary one which is set up to segregate the Palestinian concentrations in closed pockets . Such wall is built around groups of Palestinian villages that are enclosed from all directions with the wall except one gate that is controlled completely by the Israeli army which determinations to open it or close it whenever it wishes . By establishing this racial separation wall , Israel aims at not only destroying the economical and social aspects of the Palestinian people but also controlling all the Palestinian natural resources especially destroying the agricultural sector. In the Zionist thought, agriculture means connection with the land and controlling water resources . It also means the correct beginning to build a powerful economy capable of steadfastness at the hear of the Palestinian Arab homeland . Therefore, Israel aims at confiscating the largest possible areas of land behind the wall so that it would be easy to include such lands in the future to Israel . About 14984 dunums in Ramalla area were confiscated and about 150 dunums were confiscated in the first area of the study This study examined the impacts of building the separation wall in the first area in comparison with the second area by investigating the extent of building the separation wall on the economical and social aspects in the first area during the year 2004 and 2005 based on the statement " The impact of the separation wall on the agricultural system regarding agricultural areas, production quantities, marketing , social relations and rate of unemployment" and the situation of food security . A random sample was taken from the study population which consisted of 60 farmers . Data were collected through questionnaires that were constructed for this purpose . The results were analyzed by using the SPSS, arithmetic mean, standard deviation and percentages . After analyzing the results by using the said procedures, the study reached the following findings:- There are significant differences at ( a = 0.05 ) between the area with the wall and the area without the wall regarding the agricultural areas, production quantities , marketing, social relations, rate of unemployment and the situation of food security . The separation wall has more negative consequences on the walled area ( that the segregation wall is building on it as Beet Loqia and Kharbahta bani hareth) more than the area without the wall ( that the segregation wall doesn’t build on it as Dora alqara ,Aene sinia and Almazrah algarbeia ) .The rate of confiscated areas for the purpose of building the separation wall in the first area was 150.68 dunums most of which was covered with fruitful trees such as olive trees and field crops . This affected the agricultural lands and the production quantities. The income rate decreased by 56.18 % and 41.02% in the first and second areas respectively. Therefore, the second area affected indirectly by building the wall . In addition , the wall deprived the workers in Israel from reaching their work places and so the unemployment rate rose by 60% and 30% in the first and second areas respectively. Adverse social habits such as beggary and child labor appeared. Food security decreased by 23.3% and 3.3% in the first and second areas respectively due to the dependence of the inhabitants on what they cultivate in their lands According to the said findings, the study puts forward the following recommendations :- Efforts must be made in order to decrease the effects of building the separation wall so as to limit the unemployment rate, to promote cultivation of the house garden, and to raise the food quantities available to families and so to promote the food security . Food assistance donated by various corporations must be replaced by sums of money to the inhabitants of the study area to help them to set up small income-generating projects that may help them to decrease the unemployment rate, to increase income rate, to improve living standards and cocial situations of the family, and to help farmers to market their agricultural outputs in external markets for good prices so as to achieve food security for the families of the study area .
التنمية الريفية المستدامة , Sustainable Rural Development