Quality of Spirulina Platensis Produced From Different Local Resources
Shireen Ziad Mohammed Ja'far
شيرين زياد محمد جعفر
This study is very important for introducing a new and very important economical product for the benefits of the Palestinians. Spirulinaplatensis is a type of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).The present study was designed totest the quality of Spirulina Platensis that were grown in five different local cheap resources. The quality of the product is an indication for the possibility of producing Spirulinaplatensis using cheap local resources, and thus introducing a new product industry for the Palestinian market. The quality of the algae was compared to the quality of Spirulinaplatensis microalgae that was grown on the expensive media reported in the literature. The quality was reported by measuring and comparing the totalphenolic content TPC, total flavonoid content TFC, HPLC analysis of polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of S.Platensis crude extract of the five samples and the standard. The different media that was tested include: 1. Zarrouk media (ZM) 2. fish wastewater pond (FW), 3. plant ash solution 3% (PAS), 4. Brackish water (BW)1:2 dilution with d.water. 5. mix solution from (MS) (fish wastewater pond+plant ash solution 3%+brackish water dilution 1:2 as 1:1:1, respectively). The Quality of the media was tested by measuring antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids content, as well as antibacterial and anticancer activities for the five local media. HPLC was used also to determine the phenolic compounds in the extracts of S.platensis. The result was compared with standard S.platensis that was grown in Zarrouk media. Results showed that TPC of S.platensis from ethanolic extract was found to be 42±2 mggallic acid/g, 33±0.9 mggallic acid /g, 32±1 mggallic acid /g, 40±1 mg gallic/g, 22±0.7 mg gallic acid /g and 5±0.9 mggallic acid /g, for S.platensis cultivated with media (ZM, MS, FW, BW, PAS, and standard S.platensis, respectively). For TFC S.platensis from ethanolic extract was found to be 3.3±0.6 mgquercetin/g, 2±0.4 mgquercetin/g, 1±0.8 mgquercetin/g, 2.6±0.5 mgquercetin/g, 1.4±1mgquercetin /g, and 1.2 ±0.2 mg quercetin/g for S.platensis cultivated with ZM, PAS, BW, MS, FW, and standard S.platensis, respectively.HPLC analysis showed that all extracts contained major phenolic compounds like chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, catechin and caffeic acid. The highest phenolic compounds in all extracts were found to be chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid. Results also showed an increase in the % of these phenolic compounds in spirulina with the new culture media (MS, ZM, FW, BW, PAS) compared to the reference S.Platensis. Antioxidant activity as % inhibition of S. platensis extract was found to be 77%±0.6, 47%±0.9, ±, 46%±0.3, 17.1%±0.3, 8.3%±0.5, and 54%±0.6, for s.platensis cultivated with new culture media MS, ZM,BW, FW, PAS, and standard S.platensis, respectively.Antibacterial activity was performed by disc diffusion method, and the inhibition zone was found to be 11 mm, 15 mm, 8mm, for Standard S.platensis, 11mm, 18mm, 13mm for BW media, 10mm, 11mm,11mm, for PAS media against Staphylococcus, E.coli, and Marsa, respectively. While no effect on bacterial growth for S.platensis cultivated in ZM, FW, and MS media. Anticancer activity was performed against two cancer cell lines (breast cancer cellsMCF7 along with colon cancer cells from the cell line HT29) cultured in RPMI media. No anticancer activities were observed for S.platensis cultivated with MS, ZM,BW, FW, PAS, and standard S.platensis, against the two cancer cell lines.