السياسة الأميركية تجاه قضية اللاجئين الفلسطينيين 2000-1948
فاتن محمد بدر الزماعره
Faten Mohammad Bader Al-Zama`ra
This study examines U.S policy towards the issue of the Palestinian refugees in the period extending from 1948 to 2000; This period has witnessed many developments in the issue of the Palestinian refugees on the international scene in the light of regional changes that have largely affected the development of the U.S. foreign policy. Recent developments such as the 1993 Oslo Accords has contributed in complicating the course of events, Israeli diplomacy has been characterized as aiming to blur the issue Palestinian rights. The study investigates the American policy, particularly after Oslo Accords since it has been adopting the Israeli position towards refugees that calls for ignoring their right of return. This study reviews the historical background for the American policy towards the issue of the Palestinian refugees where it has played a big role in supporting as a homeland for the Jews. The thesis Reviews U.S policy towards. Palestinian refugees, showing the orientations of the President Harry Truman (1945-1952) before and after the occurrence of the Nakba in 1948, It studies the policy of President Dwight Eisenhower (1952-1961) towards the cause of the refugees, as well as addressing the policy of President John Kennedy, and the policy of President Lyndon Johnson that considered the resolution of the issue of the Palestinian refugees can be achieved through resettlement and compensation and to be treated as humanitarian issue and not as a political issue. It examines the policy of U.S. President Jimmy Carter in 1976 who chonstituted resarding the Palestinian refugees as this policy and for the first time considered the issue of the refugees as a nation and people who need a homeland. Then it studies Reagan's Initiative in 1982 following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon which aimed at striking the military and political presence of the Palestinian resistance, This initiative was based on the idea of creating an entity of self-governance with Jordan. The research further examine the position of President George HW Bush, and the administration of President Bill Clinton. The international and regional changes contributed to the adoption of the negotiation principle since 1991 between the conflicting parties (Arab states and Israel) under the auspices of the United States. This formula adopted the need for the establishment of apalestinian state in the areas that Israel will withdraw from and postponing the issue of refugees to the final status negotiations. The study is based on the assumption that the adherence of the Palestinian refugees to the principle of their right of return will contribute to form a radical change in the American position towards the issue of the Palestinian refugees also that the adherence of the Palestinian Authority to the principle of right of return in a practical and logical political manner will bear it's fruit/results in the near future, also the adherence of the Palestinian Authority to the principle of right of return do not contradict or make any conflict with Peace Agreements that are signed with Israel, also that the failure of U.S Administration to adopt and to support United Nations resolutions regarding the issue of the refugees make the peace opportunities far and elusive. The research focus in its theoretical framework on the Realist Theory that have been used in analyzing the U.S. foreign policy towards the issue of the Palestinian refugees in the period extending from 1948 to 2000. The study has depended on the presentation and analysis of information on a set of scientific methods that serve the conduct and flow of the research like historical and analytical approach where the researcher will study and review the previous published studies.
الدراسات الاقليمية , Regional Studies