أثر التخطيط الحضري على الديمغرافيا في القدس
ناصر عيسى جلال هدمي
Naser Isa Jalal Hidmi
This study aimed to show the relationship between urban planning and demographic reality in Jerusalem, and how the urban planning was used by the ruling authorities since the British occupation through the Jordanian rule of the eastern section of the city toward the Israeli occupation of the city and its unification under expansion of its borders to this day. The researcher referred to the structural maps and documents available on the planning of the city and the classification of the lands and statements of politicians and planners on the planning objectives and their visions of the future of the city and the desired demographic balance of this city through these visions. The researcher found by reference to the British documents and plans that urban planning to control the population preceded the construction of the Israeli occupation state since the British occupation, which sought to create conditions for the benefit of Jewish immigrants to the city. This has facilitated the implementation of the plans of the Israeli occupation and prepared the infrastructure of this occupation, nothing less than facilitate the immigration of Jews to the land of Palestine through the foreign consulates help that were in Palestine. The first map of the city of Jerusalem was established by the British occupation in 1921 by the British engineer William McLean which divided the city into four sections. The map gave priority to planning and development of the western and northwestern part of the city, which was predominantly Jewish, while the eastern and south-eastern part of the city, which was predominantly Arab, was neglected and constrained by the conditions of construction and restriction. This map and its subsequent planning work during the British occupation of the city constituted the cornerstone and guide for all subsequent planning of the Israeli occupation in the city. The most famous planners of the city of Jerusalem during the British occupation after McLean were Patrick Geddes, Charles Ashby, and Henry Kendall. After the establishment of the Israeli occupation state in 1948 and the division of the city of Jerusalem into two parts, east under the administration of Jordan, in which almost the majority of construction and development plans has been frozen, and Western was subject to the Israeli occupation, which prepared several plans and drawings, some of which even included the eastern part of the city on the grounds that its subject to the Israeli occupation is a matter of time. The most important plans prepared by the Israeli occupation of the city were the plan of Heinz Rau and the plan of Shaveev in 1959, which, despite the problems of implementation, several parts of them remained effective to this day. Last but not least, in 2004, a structural map was prepared, Jerusalem 2000, which outlines a future vision of the city and its urban and demographic image until 2020. The most important characteristic of this map is the classification of many of the land of Jerusalemites in a way that prevents them from expansion and construction, as it identified ideas about the demographic balance in the city and the reality of Jerusalemites in it. All these schemes and classifications was faced by Jerusalemites, forced to build unauthorized and live in unorganized and unhealthy houses, which posed for them and the occupation state security, social, health and political problems. The researcher found that the Israeli occupation has used to determine patterns of policy implementation, and to predict patterns of population reactions and behaviors, social theories explained by social scientist like Paulins, Borrell and Morgan as well as Yousef. This approach was a way of understanding the impact of policy implementation and ensuring control by predicting behavior after policy implementation. Therefore, we saw that after a hundred years of starting to prepare the plans and prepare for their implementation there are manifestations of success of these plans and achieve visions.