Determination of unifloral honey volatiles from Centaurea iberica and Zizyphus spina-christi by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
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The volatiles of two different unifloral Palestinian honeys from botanical species Centaurea iberica and Zizyphus spina-christi have been investigated for the first time. They were isolated, identified, and quantitatively analyzed using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS) methodology. The resulted total ion current (TIC) chromatographic profiles reflected the uniqueness of each type of honey and therefore the proposed procedure can be used to characterize each kind of honey by revealing the absence or presence of certain volatile constituents. A total of 18 compounds were seen in Centaurea iberica honey with phenylacetaldehyde, phenylethylalcohol, 2-ethyl hexanoic acid, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol and nonanoic acid as the principal components, whereas 25 compounds were seen in Zizyphus spinachristi honey with benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, phenylethylalcohol, benzeneacetonitrile, 2-ethyl hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, 2-methoxy-4-(1-propanol)-6-acetate phenol, nonanoic acid, decanoic acid, 1-hydroxy 2,4,6-trimethylbenzene, and 5-hydroxymethyl- 2-furaldehyde as the principal constituents. Ziziphus spina-christi honey was found to have two unequivocal potential markers: phenylacetonitrile and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, while Centaurea Italica honey has only one representative floral origin marker compound: the 2,4,6-trimethylphenol.