Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Profiling of the Leaf Extract of Salvia palaestina
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Salvia palaestina (Lamiaceae) is listed as native plant in Flora palaestina. In the Palestinian kitchen, its leaves is virtually used in daily basis with the breakfast tea to add its distinct pleasant flavor and aromatic aroma. In order to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of cultivated S. palaestina, the leaves of the herb were collected, air-dried, steam distilled and the culminated essential oils were subjected to GC-MS analysis. About two dozens of volatile and semivolatile phytochemicals were separated and identified. The principal components were eucalyptol (47.09%) and camphor (8.73%). The antioxidant activity of the oil was estimated by 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The IC50 was 2.333 mg/ml after 30 min, while after 90 min it was 1.585 mg/ml, meaning that the antioxidant activity of the oil increased with time. Linear relation between concentration and activity was observed. The antimicrobial activity was examined by the disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of 5 μl of the essential oil was found to be greater than the activity of gentamicin in the case of Staphylococcus aureus while it was nearly the same as gentamicin against E. coli. Furthermore, this concentration was two times more active than nystatin against Candida albicans.