Removal of Antibacterial Agents by Advanced Membrane Technology and ODTMAMicelle-Clay Comlex.
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The efficiency of sequential advanced membrane technology wastewater treatment plant towards removal of amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil from wastewater was investigated. The sequential system included activated sludge, ultrafiltration (hollow fiber membranes with 100 kDa cutoff, and spiral wound membranes with 20 kDa cutoff), activated carbon column and reverse osmosis (RO).The overall performance of the integrated plant showed complete removal of amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil from spiked wastewater samples. The adsorption isotherms for these compounds have been studied using both activated carbon adsorbent and newly developed adsorbent named micelle-clay complex (octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA)–clay (montmorillonite)). The results revealed that both isotherms adsorption fit the Langmuir equation with Qmax of 100 mg/g and 90.91 mg/g, and with K values 0.229 L/mg and 0.158 L/mg for amoxicillin using activated carbon and micelle-clay complex, respectively, and with Qmax of 26.31 mg/g and 31.25 mg/g and with K values 0.271 L/mg and 0.122 L/mg for cefuroxime axetil using activated charcoal and micelle-clay complex, respectively. Removal of amoxicillin and Cefuroxime axetil from polluted water in high concentrations (100 ppm) by column filter including a mixture of micelle-clay or activated charcoal composite with sand indicated an efficient removal of both pharmaceuticals.