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dc.contributor.authorSpigelman, Mark
dc.contributor.authorDonoghue, Helen D.
dc.contributor.authorAbdeen, Ziad
dc.contributor.authorEreqat, Suheir
dc.contributor.authorSarie, Issa
dc.contributor.authorGreenblatt, Charles L.
dc.contributor.authorPap, Ildiko
dc.contributor.authorSzikossy, Ildiko
dc.contributor.authorHershkovitz, Israel
dc.contributor.authorBar-Gal, Gila Kahila
dc.contributor.authorMatheson, Carney
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-02T19:54:22Z
dc.date.available2018-09-02T19:54:22Z
dc.date.issued2015-02-13
dc.identifier.issn1472-9792
dc.identifier.urihttps://dspace.alquds.edu/handle/20.500.12213/796
dc.description.abstractThe demonstration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in ancient skeletons gives researchers an insight into its evolution. Findings of the last two decades sketched the biological relationships between the various species of tubercle bacilli, the time scale involved, their possible origin and dispersal. This paper includes the available evidence and on-going research. In the submerged Eastern Mediterranean Neolithic village of Atlit Yam (9000 BP), a human lineage of M. tuberculosis, defined by the TbD1 deletion in its genome, was demonstrated. An infected infant at the site provides an example of active tuberculosis in a human with a naïve immune system. Over 4000 years later tuberculosis was found in Jericho. Urbanization increases population density encouraging M. tuberculosis/human co-evolution. As susceptible humans die of tuberculosis, survivors develop genetic resistance to disease. Thus in 18th century Hungarian mummies from V ac, 65% were positive for tuberculosis yet a 95-year-old woman had clearly survived a childhood Ghon lesion. Whole genome studies are in progress, to detect changes over the millennia both in bacterial virulence and also host susceptibility/resistance genes that determine the NRAMP protein and Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs). This paper surveys present evidence and includes initial findings.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe contribution made by our many collaborators, researchers and students is gratefully acknowledged. Special acknowledgement is due to Dr Angela Gernaey (deceased) who helped pioneer the early mycolic acid work on the bison bone.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.subjectAncient DNAen_US
dc.subjectEvolutionen_US
dc.subjectKIR historical specimensen_US
dc.subjectMycobacterium tuberculosisen_US
dc.subjectSLC11A1 geneen_US
dc.subjectSolute Carrier family genesen_US
dc.titleEvolutionary changes in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the human genome from 9000 years BP until modern timesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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