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    Cerebellar liponeurocytoma, a rare tumor: Case report and review of the literature
    (Elsevier, 2021-04-30) Abuzneid, Yousef ; Alzeerelhouseini, Hussam ; Shkokani, Sundus ; Aqel, Wafa ; Aldarawish, Asad
    Introduction: Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system occurring mainly in the posterior fossa, which shows neuronal and variable astrocytic differentiation, along with foci of lipomatous differentiation. Case presentation: Herein, we describe a 50-year-old female patient who presented to the hospital complaining of headache, tinnitus, and vertigo with positive cerebellar signs. MRI revealed a left cerebellar tumor. After tumor resection, histological examination and immunohistochemistry were done and the diagnosis of cerebellar liponeurocytoma was confirmed. Discussion: Liponeurocytoma may be mistaken as a medulloblastoma with lipidized cells or a lipomatous ependymoma. Histopathological examination, reinforced by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, are required to distinguish between these entities. The rarity of this tumor and paucity of pertinent information regarding its biological potential and natural history have resulted in the application of various treatment modalities. Conclusion: Liponeurocytoma is a rare benign tumor with cerebellum is the typical site for it. Although surgery is the treatment of choice; however, postoperative radiotherapy may have a role in case of incomplete tumor resection or recurrence.
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    Compounding inequalities: Adolescent psychosocial wellbeing and resilience among refugee and host communities in Jordan during the COVID-19 pandemic
    (PLOS, 2022-02-02) Jones, Nicola ; Baird, Sarah ; Abu Hamad, Bassam ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Oakley, Erin ; Shah, Manisha ; Sajdi, Jude ; Yount, Kathryn M.
    Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic and associated risk-mitigation strategies have altered the social contexts in which adolescents in low- and middle-income countries live. Little is known, however, about the impacts of the pandemic on displaced populations, and how those impacts differ by gender and life stage. We investigate the extent to which the pandemic has compounded pre-existing social inequalities among adolescents in Jordan, and the role support structures play in promoting resilience. Methods Our analysis leverages longitudinal quantitative survey data and in-depth qualitative interviews, collected before and after the onset of COVID-19, with over 3,000 Syrian refugees, stateless Palestinians and vulnerable Jordanians, living in camps, host communities and informal tented settlements. We utilize mixed-methods analysis combining multivariate regression with deductive qualitative tools to evaluate pandemic impacts and associated policy responses on adolescent wellbeing and mental health, at three and nine months after the pandemic onset. We also explore the role of support systems at individual, household, community, and policy levels. Findings We find the pandemic has resulted in severe economic and service disruptions with farreaching and heterogenous effects on adolescent wellbeing. Nine months into the pandemic, 19.3% of adolescents in the sample presented with symptoms of moderate-to severe depression, with small signs of improvement (3.2 percentage points [pp], p<0.001). Two thirds of adolescents reported household stress had increased during the pandemic, especially for Syrian adolescents in host communities (10.7pp higher than any other group, p<0.001). Social connectedness was particularly low for girls, who were 13.4 percentage points (p<0.001) more likely than boys to have had no interaction with friends in the past 7 days. Adolescent programming shows signs of being protective, particularly for girls, who were 8.8 percentage points (p<0.01) more likely to have a trusted friend than their peers who were not participating in programming. Conclusions Pre-existing social inequalities among refugee adolescents affected by forced displacement have been compounded during the COVID-19 pandemic, with related disruptions to services and social networks. To achieve Sustainable Development Goal targets to support healthy and empowered development in adolescence and early adulthood requires interventions that target the urgent needs of the most vulnerable adolescents while addressing population-level root causes and determinants of psychosocial wellbeing and resilience for all adolescent girls and boys.
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    Automated verification tools for cryptographic protocols
    (IEEE, 2021-11-17) Hassan, Adel ; Ishaq, Isam ; Minilla, Jorge
    Security protocols are used to secure communications using cryptographic tools. Different communication and network security protocols, such as HTTPS and TLS, have become widely used in current applications and systems that are deployed in different industries such as banking, insurance, mobile operator, etc. Verifying the security of these security methods is becoming increasingly important to guarantee that they fulfill their goals, and automated verification tools are profiled as the most promising instrument for this task. Automated verification tools can be categorized according to the approach that they use, symbolic or computational, and their prove method: model checking and theorem prove. This article aims to review the methods employed by the different types of verification tools and provide a comparative of the tools more widely used nowadays.
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    Excellence in the Financial Purposes of the Leader’s Objectives in the Control of Public Money; Revenues and Expenditures: ʻUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb as a Model
    ( 2021-12-30) (Muhammad Ali), Muhammad Saleem Mustafa ; Assaf, Mohammad Mutleq Mohammad
    This Research reveals the bright image of the principles of good governance in the era of Caliph ʻUmar ibn al- Khaṭṭāb, may Allah be pleased with him. The Researcher sheds light on the excellence of Caliph Umar ibn AlKhattab in the financial purposes of management and control of public money (Bayt ul maal); Revenues and Expenditures. Caliph ʻUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb established Bayt ul Maal and directly supervised its revenues and expenditures. The research also reveals unique excellence in his financial policy . The Researcher used the historical, descriptive, inductive, deductive and analytical approach, and came out with a set of results and recommendations.
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    Prolonged Exposure to Violence: Psychiatric Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among College Students in the Palestinian Territory
    ( 2021-11-01) Hamdan, Sami ; Hallaq, Eyad
    Objective: Little is known about the risk for suicide in those exposed to prolonged political and domes- tic violence. Thus, this study aims to explore suicidal ideation and attempts in a community sample of Palestinian students and identify the extent to which clinical variables are associated with suicidal idea- tion. Method: A cross-sectional design was utilized in this study, and 303 college and university stu- dents aged 18 to 23 from seven campuses in the Palestinian territory voluntarily and anonymously completed self-report questionnaires that assessed 12 months of suicidal ideation and attempts, posttrau- matic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, anxiety, and sleep problems. Results: The results showed high rates of suicidal ideation and attempts within the last 12 months. Severe symptoms of PTSS, depression, and sleep problems were reported compared with other college samples. An exploratory path analysis showed that PTSS is directly associated with suicidal ideation and indirectly by its associa- tion with sleep problems and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The results highlight the elevated men- tal health difficulties of students living under prolonged exposure to violence and could be helpful to policy and decision-makers in health care and academic institutions in implementing and design inter- ventions aim to reduce depression and PTSS. Screening for PTSS and depression is a vital first step in suicide prevention efforts in college students exposed to trauma. Future studies should assess the types of traumatic stress exposure and health risk behaviors to offer a more in-depth view.