Formation of disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pool water: The contribution from filling water natural organic matter and swimmer body fluids
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The contribution and role of different precursors in the formation of three class of disinfection by-products (DBPs) [trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and halonitromethanes (HNMs)] in swimming pool waters were examined using filling waters obtained from five drinking water treatment plant (WTP) effluents and three body fluid analogs (BFAs). BFAs exerted higher chlorine demands as compared to natural organic matter (NOM) in filling waters. BFAs exhibited higher HAA formation potentials than THM formation potentials, while the opposite was observed for the filling water NOM. There was no appreciable difference in the HNM formation potentials of BFAs and filling water NOM. Different components in the BFAs tested exhibited different degree and type of DBP formation. Citric acid had significantly higher THM and HAA yields than other BFA components. The effect of temperature was greater on THM formation, whereas the effect of contact time had more impact on HAA formation. Experiments with filling waters collected from WTP effluents at three different times showed more variability in HAA than THM formation at the WTPs studied.