Musculoskeletal Etiology and manifestations of emporomandibular joint problems in Bethlehem and Jerusalem/Palestine
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presentation, leading to challenges in its diagnosis and management. Objectives: The main objectives of this study is to highlight the musculoskeletal etiology and manifestations for Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) in patients from Bethlehem and Jerusalem. Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted in on a convenient sample of 96participants (48 case with diagnosed TMDs and 48 control without TMDs). Data was collected by giving patients with TMDs and their matched (for age and gender) control group personal data sheet about the medical history and a check list of TMDs clinicalsymptoms and risk factors to be answered on a scale of 5 where 1 meant strongly disagree, and 5 strongly agree, in addition to a functional examination, which included ROM, MMT, VAS scale and palpation for tenderness. These together helped to determine musculoskeletal etiology and manifestations of Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). Results: The result showed that 75% of sample that had TMDs were female, while 25% male. Para functional habit of resting head on the hand was the most common risk associated with TMDs (mean =3.87). TMJ pain was exacerbated by eating and yawing (mean= 3.44), and 37% of participants had pain in both sides of the joint. Along with this, Participants mainly complained of pain in the TM joint(mean = 3.85), forehead pain (3.56), other symptoms were clicking in the joint, shoulder pain, pressing on teeth, pain when yawing and chewing, and pain in neck. Furthermore, there was an association between missing teeth and pain in joint (P<0.05), and there was no correlation between age of participant and limitation in the ROM of TMJ (p> 0.05). Conclusion: TMDs are associated with female gender, parafunctions like resting head on hand, main clinical symptoms appeared in eating and yawing, TMDs were associated with regional referred pain.