Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Wild Scolymus maculatus L.
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The wild population of spotted golden thistle, Scolymus maculatus, which belongs to the Compositae family, is believed to be one of the multi-curative wild plants mentioned in Flora Palaestina. This study aims to disclose the phytochemical composition, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of wild S. maculatus collected from the farms of Kabul, a village in northwest Galilee, for the first time. Methods: The phytochemical components of crude S. maculatus extracts from methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane solvents were separated and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the electron impact (EI) mode. The free radical scavenging of the plant extracts was measured by DPPH assay. The microdilution test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of di erent S. maculatus extracts and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. Results: Thirty-two phytochemicals were found in S. maculatus extracts including stigmasterol, -sitosterol, lupeol, lupeol acetate, and -amyrin. Phytochemicals, such as 2-linoleoylglycerol, -sitosterol, -amyrin, lupeol, (3 )-12-oleanen-3-yl acetate, and lupenyl acetate, were found to dominate the methanol extract. Most of these compounds were also observed in ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts, but at di erent levels, in addition to some other minor compounds. The various extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic and the methanolic extracts were shown to exhibit the highest free radical scavenging by DPPH assay with a half-maximally e ective concentration (EC50) of 0.37 and 0.65 mg/mL respectively, while the other three extracts (aqueous, ethyl acetate and n-hexane) were less active and their EC50 (e ective concentration at which DPPH radical was scavenged by 50%) were above 1.0 mg/mL. Moreover, MICs were determined to be e ective against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Candida albicans microorganisms. Ethyl acetate and the ethanolic extracts are active against the three types of microorganisms at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 mg/mL, while aqueous and the n-hexane extracts are inactive against Salmonella typhimurium. Conclusions: The results show that S. maculatus extracts are a rich source of compounds that can play an important role in human health, and in a broader context, in the treatment of various diseases, such antimicrobial and antioxidant-related ailments.