Assessment of Patient Safety Culture in the Palestinian Hospital Pharmacies

وفاء جمال حسن الزغاري
Wafa Jamal Hassan Zaghari
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
AL-Quds University
جامعة القدس
Background: Patient safety culture assessment in pharmacies is increasing largely worldwide, many tools that were used to assess patient safety culture at the hospital settings as a whole are now adapted to be used for pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure patient safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The tool consists of 30 items that cover six safety culture domains. The intention of this research is to map the patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospital pharmacies, this will be achieved through measuring and analyzing the patient safety culture domains there, understanding factors influencing safety culture and examine variations between different hospital pharmacies. This assessment helps in determining safety culture domains that are considered as areas of strength, and safety culture domains that are considered as areas of weakness for each hospital pharmacy. Mapping patient safety culture in hospital pharmacies will end up by directing each hospital pharmacy to improve areas of weakness effectively and efficiently. Purpose: To assess patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospital pharmacies, and to assess the association of hospitals and respondents characteristics with patient safety culture. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. The English version of the SAQ was translated and adapted to the Palestinian context. The survey was carried out in (28) Palestinian hospitals in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. All pharmacist assistants, pharmacist, and clinical pharmacists in these hospitals were targeted, estimated to 115 personnel. Items mean and scale scores were calculated. Then a composite score equivalent to the arithmetic mean of the scale scores were also calculated. In order to identify areas of strength and areas for potential improvement, the percentages of positive responses for the survey domains and items were calculated. Univariate analysis was used to test associations between composite patient safety scores and different respondent and hospital characteristics. viii Findings: 73 persons participated in the study, response rate was 68.8%. Females were 66.7%, 51% were pharmacist or clinical pharmacist, and 84.7% were with experience ≥ 5 years in profession. Two SAQ domains, job satisfaction and working conditions, were identified as areas of strength and received ≥75% of positive responses. Patient safety level was graded as “accepted” by (50%) of the respondents and none gave their pharmacy a “Poor” or “Failing” grade. Event reporting was very low, (66%) of the respondents didn’t report any event in the past year. In regard to the associations between safety culture domains scores with participants and hospital characteristics, the association was statistically significant (P<0.05) in regard to hospital ownership with the teamwork climate (P=0.02), perception of management (P=0.03), job satisfaction (P=0.001), and working conditions (P=0.02) and all in favor of the private and NGO hospitals. Participants working in hospitals sized <50 beds were more positive towards perception of management climate than their counterparts in larger sized hospitals (P=0.031). The overall safety score was significantly associated only with the hospital ownership (P=0.002) in favor of the private and NGO hospitals. No statistically significant associations were found between safety culture domains and the participant’s age, gender, years of experience in profession and hospital, level of education, working hours, and job title. The safety culture domain scores varied largely among different hospital pharmacies. None of the six domains were positive for four hospitals, twelve hospitals have negative total safety score and the best result was having five positive safety domains and a positive total safety score and this result was achieved only by two hospitals. Conclusions: Safety culture assessment results revealed areas for potential improvement in Palestinian hospital pharmacies. Hospitals need to formulate specific patient safety culture interventions to address these weaknesses
العلوم الطبية المخبرية , رسالة ماجستير , دراسات عليا , Medical Laboratory science , Higher Studies , Master Thesis