التعارض بين النظرية والتطبيق في تجربة حركة حماس بين عامي 1987-2011
The Discrepancy between theory and practice in the experience of Hamas Movement between the years 1987-2011
هيثم جورج الياس مصلح
HAITHAM GEAORGE ELYAS MUSLEH
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This research study discusses the discrepancy between theory and practice in the experience of Hamas Movement between the years 1987‐2011, with reference to its success in the legislative elections in January 2006, and its leadership of the Palestinian authority through forming the tenth government, and later its military control on Gaza Strip in June 2007. This study aims at highlighting the pragmatic policy of Hamas and its way of administrating the authority in the Gaza Strip, focusing on the discrepancy of Hamas's practical policy and its theoretical beliefs, mentioned both in the Hamas's constitution and the perspectives of its leaders declared in media (Ahmad Yasin, Abdel Aziz Rantisi, Mahmoud Zahhar, Ismael Hannieh). The obstacle to this study was the ability to objectively follow the developments on the ground before and after the success of Hamas in the legislative elections in 2006. Also the study follow the events of the conflict between Hamas and Fateh which included military clashes, finalized by the control of Hamas in the Gaza Strip in 2007, in addition to the later events until the end of 2011. The study has also covered the roots of the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine from the from the forties until the establishment of Hamas in 1987. The researcher has used the historical method through browsing the historical stations of the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine and the establishment of Hamas from the womb of the Brotherhood in 1987. The researcher has most importantly concluded that Hamas has been an Islamic movement resisting the Israeli occupation, and has exerted distinguished efforts of struggle in this course. He concludes also that Hamas wanted to invest those efforts to advent the Palestinian political system, appeared first in participating in the elections of municipalities and village councils and later in the legislative elections in 2006. After Hamas had come to power and had formed the tenth government, the disputes started to float on the surface especially with Fateh, which resulted in the armed clashes and therefore trespassing the redlines killing and injuring many Palestinians especially in Gaza Strip. The result of this conflict was the control of Hamas on Gaza Strip in June 2007. This issue among others are discussed in the study which show discrepancy between theory and practice in the experience of Hamas Movement. The researcher recommends achieving a national agreement among all Palestinian parties to avoid the internal fighting, and accepting the results of the local, legislative and presidential elections. Also they should accept the political plurality and freedom of opinion, respect human rights, put the national interests on top of the partisan interests, restructure the institutions of PLO on democratic basis. All national and Islamic parties should join PLO to stay the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. Finally, a Palestinian government should be formed to include all Palestinian parties and focusing on fighting corruption, filling the gaps and solving all problems.