القدس في المفاوضات العربية - الإسرائيلية من عام 1947 وحتى عام 2000
Jerusalem in the Arab-Israeli negotiations from 1947 to 2000
مصباح محمد أحمد البابا
Musbah Mohammed Ahmed El-Baba
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Jerusalem consider as a cradle of the three mouthiest religiousness, because of it contains worship places, holy sites, ancient monument religious, as proceeds gives the city a religious property, there were reasons for a conflict between the religious followers and there dominance the city, Lastly the Moslems seized the city which persisted 1250 years until the beginning of the twentieth century whereas the stage of the western country especially the British colony. As mentioned above appear that the conflict is a historical continuous during historical era, the used of the historical methods research, the historical information's, for studding the problem and reaching the research results, and achieving the research target which would prove that the Israel’s withdrawal from eastern Jerusalem then make it a capital of Palestine independent state is successfulness peace process in the middle east. The Ottoman seized the city at the beginning of the sixteenth century, they limited there interests in the religious sides, the situation still alike, until the middle of the nineteenth century whereas the Jerusalem city shifted as a Sanjaq, "region", following the interior Ottoman minister. The Europeans states especially the super power had their greediness in the orient, and their aspirations to got a foot hood in Jerusalem, they gained a distinctions from the Ottoman government entitled them protect one Christian sect in Jerusalem and all Palestine. At last quarter of the nineteenth century appeared the Jewish interests in Palestine especially Jerusalem, these shifted as a greediness by the Zionist movement, and because of Jerusalem is there cradle religious, there aspiration resource, religious attraction means the Zionist movement do immigration to the Jewish people from hall the world to settled in Palestine and especially in Jerusalem The Jewish immigration waves to Palestine in general to Jerusalem in particular ,and the lands confiscation capturing was a main cause of violence revolutions breaking out in Palestine against Jewish settlers and there greediness at the city. These reasons carry out the 1948 war between Jewish organization and Arab, so they won the war, they captured more than 3/4 of historical Palestine area, more than 1/2 Jerusalem city, then the city became the most deferent issue between the conflicted sides, and the most complicated negotiations question, which was and still insurgent loosen. The negotiation considers as a means of loosen the deference between the conflicted edges; its aim is reaching settle agreement to satisfy the intended sides. Negotiation process runs on Jerusalem after 1948 war between several edges, the first one was between king Abdullah, and the Jewish agency, he confessed the western Jerusalem was Israeli, so that the Israel will confess him the eastern Jerusalem, he negotiated also on a passage to the wailing wall "weeping wall" instead of returning some Arab neighborhoods in western Jerusalem, but Israel didn't carry out what did they agreed on. However King Hussein, during his secret meetings or negotiations with Israelis, he demands the returning of eastern Jerusalem to his domain, until Madrid conference 1991 king Hussein didn't reach a Jerusalem settlement with Israel, after that they reached an agreement which kept a role for Jordan in Jerusalem; that was care the holy sites, So a negotiations runs on Jerusalem between Egypt and Israel, president Nasser proposed to resolve the Middle East question it was the implementation of the UN decision 181, then annexed Jerusalem and Naqaf to the Arab state, President Sadat negotiated Israel, he demanded Israeli withdrawals form Jerusalem city and Arab control on the Mosque Islamic holy sites instead of keeping the city united, but Israel’s rigidity prevent reaching a Jerusalem agreement. The first intefada 1987, the second gulf war and Iraq defeated, the collapse of the Soviet Union, all of these were main role of starting the peace process in the region once again, resumed Madrid conference and the participation of Palestinians from the occupied territories 1967. After Madrid, rounds of openness negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis started at Washington, Jerusalem issue was presented at every round, but the tow sides did not reach a result on the city. Wherever secret negotiation in Oslo, the two sides agreed to postponed Jerusalem question to the permanent status negotiations, that resumed at Camp David 2000, they negotiated Jerusalem issue, the Palestine delegation persisted on Israel withdrawal from Jerusalem up to border of 1949 armistice line, but the Israelis rejected that and proposed dividing Jerusalem in three parts, first the external neighborhoods under Palestinian control, internal neighborhoods under Israeli sovereignty and Palestinian self government, the old city also divided in three parts with several sovereignties, the Camp David 2000 negotiations ended with out reaching Jerusalem agreement, the tow sides runs a Taba, Sharm Al-Sheikh Jerusalem… negotiations but all failed. There is Israelis contentment with there deferent relationship, political ideological to non abandonment Jerusalem or any part of it, because they believe that Jerusalem is a resource of their ideology and a cradle of there culture. The negotiations runs between Israel and three official Arab sides, to achieve a regional peace agreement, and Jerusalem’s issue settle agreement, failed because of Israel inflexibility non readiness of independent Palestinian state acceptance on the occupied territories ( west bank, Gaza strip) during the war 1967 and the eastern Jerusalem its capital . The successfulness base of any peace proposal between Israel and the intendeds Arab sides is the establishment of independent Palestinian state on the West bank and Gaza strip territories, and as none eastern Jerusalem its capital.
- Regional Studies