الدولة القطرية العربية تجزئة أم توحيد؟ العراق أنموذجا 2008 - 1922
احمد سميح خليل نزال
Ahamd Sameh Khalil Nazal
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This study examined the existing Arab states, and whether they are an example of a unifying or dividing factor of the Arab world. For the purpose of this study Iraq was taken as an example. The view towards the Arab State Country differed in the opinion of philosophers, politicians and the Arab ideologists. It was looked upon by the Islamic ideological thinkers as a dividing factor since all the Arab land was once part of the Islamic state. The batistes and nationalists also saw it as a divided land considering the Arab people as one nation present on an Arab land. From their point of view it forms one unity and all of its diameters should be unified in the frame of one state. Some Arab thinkers viewed it as a unified factor since the Arab state country has formed and for the first time in its Arab character the borders which it is based on, on the contrary to the historical stages which it used to be formed by. The aim of this study is to understand the Arab state country in general and the Iraqi state in a particular, and its role in unifying or dividing the land, by studying the the Arab world before it was formed, the reasons behind its formation, the colonialism’s role and the liberation movements and the people’s revolutions in all its forms. When it comes to the Iraqi state, the study aims to know the truth of its formation and its relationship with the division and unification through studying the economical, social and political life, the role of the people’s revolutions, the ethnic composition and the factions in Iraq, and their relationship in forming the Iraqi state. The researcher also used two approaches in this research, both the historical and the description analysis methodology. The time framework of this research is between the years 1922 till the year 2000, keeping in mind the importance of going back to before year 1922 to look into the Iraqi Society as a module to the research. The result of this research concluded that the country states in some of it forms is an element of unity and in another it can be a subject of division. There are some Arab countries like Libya, Lebanon, Sudan, and Syria which were not within their current boundaries were divided into sub elements and those elements were unified by colonization. On the other hand there are other countries that were formed differently because of the geographical location such as the UAE and Oman. In Iraq which is considered a unified state and formed from the unity of three smaller parts, and that’s something that has not been common in the past. And from the results of the study the role of colonialism, contributed in unifying the form of a state, and at the same time, can be a factor in dividing a state by separating a land from a state and adding it to another state. For example, when France disconnected and separated Alexandria from Syria, and added it to Turkey. In addition to what the UK did in providing and giving the Jews a national country in Palestine. The motive behind going through with colonialism whether it was in dividing or unifying is to maintain their interests and to ensure their existence in the area.
- Regional Studies