صورة الفلسطيني في الإعلام الأمريكي:مقارنة افتتاحيات صحيفة نيويورك تايمز 2004 كدراسة حالة - 1995 و 2002 - في الفترتين 1993
The Palestinian Image in the U.S. Media: Editorials Comparative of The New York Times between 1993- 1995 and 2002-2004 as Case Study
وداد حسين علي زبيدي
Widad Husain Ali Zubaidi
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The study aims to inform researchers, scholars and interested groups how the media in general and the American newspapers, "The New York Times" in particular, projects the Palestinians in their editorials. The Thesis provides an original approach to the image of the Palestinian abroad and how "The New York Times" projects his image and character by describing the content of newspaper editorials analytical description during those periods, where each period is characterized by a different political atmosphere from the other. The study shows the extent to which decision-makers in the United States rely on the media. Also, it shows the importance of the American public opinion and its role in the political decision-making. The aim of the comparison is to find out whether there is a change in the image of a Palestinian or, was it stable during the two periods. And if there is change, why, and what are the reasons for this change? The importance of this study derives from the fact that "The New York Times" is one of the most influential newspapers in the United States, with wide circulation, and plays a major role in shaping American public opinion. In addition, its editorials express the perspective of the newspaper and the trends towards a particular topic or important issue. Furthermore, the United States is the sponsor of the peace process between the Palestinians and the Israelis, thus it is of the utmost importance to know the rooted image of the Palestinians in the American mind, whether it is that of a backward terrorist or a freedom fighter for his homeland and self-determination and identity. This study utilizes a combination of research methodologies: the Analytical Descriptive Method, Comparative Method and Case Study to examine the phenomenon under study through the description of texts, orientation, nomenclature, to gain access to a description of the Palestinians in the media discourse of the newspaper during the two periods of 1993-1995 and 2002 – 2004, analyzing and comparing them to present the fixed and variable. The study deals with the theoretical framework and discusses the theories of the media and stereotyping broadcast by the media and the impact of that image on American public opinion. In addition, to presents previous studies that addressed the subject of the study, Then it presents the role of American media in influencing decision-makers in the White House and its role in shaping American public opinion. It discusses the importance of the American media in general, and that of "The New York Times" in particular. It identifies its owners and their policies. Then it presents the description and analysis of the texts of editorials of "The New York Times" in the period between 1993-1995 analyzed quantity and quality, to show how it presents the image of the Palestinian and his cause, and how it was dealt with during the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993 and as a result the establishment of the Palestinian Authority. Also, the American role in the negotiations between the Israelis and Palestinians on the issues of the transitional period. It addressed a description of texts of the editorials of "The New York Times" in the period between 2002-2004 to extract the image of the Palestinian and its coverage during that period, after the failure of Camp David II talks between the Palestinians and the Israelis under the sponsorship of the U.S, the outbreak of the Second Intifada in the Palestinian territories, and the events of September 11,2001. It further offers a comparative analysis between the image of the Palestinian in the editorials of "The New York Times" newspaper between the two periods 1993-1995 and 2002-2004, identifying the characteristics of that image and the fixed and variable in the newspaper policy towards the Palestinians. The study concludes that the stereotype image of the Palestinian remains the same during the two periods as "The New York Times" characterized it as a "terrorist", "undemocratic", "suicidal" and other negative images. The study shows that " The New York Times" in its editorials reflects bias towards Israel, showing the image of the Israelis as "democratic", "administrative" and "witty". The study demonstrates that the Jewish ownership of the newspaper, led to promotion of the interests of Israel through influencing public opinion and in turn, the decision-makers in Washington against the Palestinians and their cause. However, the change in the newspaper's policy was manifested in the amount of coverage during the second period 2002-2004 because of a shift in American foreign policy based on the political changes on national, regional and international levels. The study recommends a more active role by the Palestinians, Arabs and Muslims to promote their message in the U.S in order to communicate a positive image for the Palestinian people.
- Regional Studies