العنف واللاعنف في الديمقراطيه الأمريكية: النضال الافريقي الامريكي لنيل الحقوق المدنيه
Violence and Nonviolence in U.S. Democracy: African-American Struggle for Civil Rights
عاليه محمد علي سويلم
Alia Mohammad Ali Swailem
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Often, people tend to assume that democratic societies are inherently non-violent; however, this presumption is not necessarily correct and may in fact be politically problematic. Thus, this study aims to clarify the existing relationship between democracy, violence and nonviolence. In doing so, it looks at the African American struggle for civil rights as a case study, revealing the complex forms of intertwining violent and nonviolent resistance in democratic societies. The African American nonviolent civil rights struggle shows how the United States, as a democratic nation, abandoned nonviolence and resorted to violence in many instances. The study has two important propositions; first, there is a relationship between each of violence, nonviolence and democracy. Second, the more democratic society is, the more it is able to use nonviolent methods and abandons violence ones in solving domestic conflicts. In order to prove these propositions the researcher arrived at the following results: First, violence in the American Civil War was one of the main tools in the foundation of democracy. Second, violence was not only practiced against African Americans during slavery phases, but it was also practiced throughout democratic era. Third, nonviolence is an important tool to advance and strengthen democracy. Regarding this point, the study shows how African American civil rights movements, under the leadership of Martin Luther King, had been successful in advancing American democracy throughout the adoption of nonviolent strategies. The methodology in this research is exploratory, historical, and analytical, in approach and it adopts the historical information about the African American civil rights struggle to explore the relationship between democracy, violence and nonviolence. While a good number of research done in Arabic explores violence, nonviolence and democracy as separate issues, this research tackles the relationships between these important concepts combined. Therefore, this study will be translated into Arabic at a later stage to pave the way for Arab readers to realize the significance of understanding the relationship of democracy with violence and nonviolence. This study strongly recommends that more in-depth research should be conducted in order to have a better understanding of this integrated relationship between violence, nonviolence and democracy. In addition, the more research is investigated and implemented around this topic, the more it enriches our understanding, and fills the gap that was unintentionally missed in this thesis.
- Regional Studies