دور أسلوب النداء المكرر في إظهار صورة الشهادة والشهداء في الشعر الفلسطيني المعاصر من أوسلو (1993 حتى 2013)
The Role of Repetitive Vocative Stayle in the Manifestation of Portraits of Martyrdom and Martyrs in Contemporary
جيمي منير ابراهيم ابو عمشة
jemi munir ibrahim abu amsha
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This study aims to uncover the portraits of martyrdom and martyrs in the contemporary Arabic poetry through the Vocative and Repetitive styles. The research consists of an introduction and two chapters. In the introduction, I addressed the study motives, significance, reasons for selection of topic, challenges encountered throughout this study, former literature on the topic, extent of benefit and the expected benefit of what this study offers. The first chapter is dedicated to "Repetition and Vocative". It concerns three topics; first, it is repetition which has seven subdivisions: first, repetition linguistically, second, repetition terminologically, third, repetition significance and purposes, fourth, research approach of repetition in ancient poetry, fifth, research approach of repetition in modern poetry, sixth, repetition benefits, and seventh, repetition conditions. Second, there is the vocative which is divided into seven subdivisions: first, vocative linguistically, second, vocative terminologically, third, vocative importance and significance, fourth, vocative particles and their implications, fifth, violation of vocative structure of its original meaning, sixth, research approach of vocative in ancient poetry and seventh research approach of vocative in modern poetry. Chapter two deals with rhetorical meanings formed out of the repetitive vocative style and their role in the manifestation of the portraits of martyrdom and martyrs in the contemporary Arabic poetry from (Oslo 1993 - 2013 A.C.) The researcher traced, in this chapter, the vocative and repetitive styles through investigating a number of Palestinian poems. The chapter has nine topics: First: repeated vocative of the Divine God, second is the repeated vocative of martyr and martyrs, this topic includes three subdivisions namely, repetitive vocative for martyr leaders, for brave martyrs and rocks children, third is the repeated vocative of the martyr's mother, fourth is the repeated vocative of the father, fifth is the repeated vocative of homeland. This chapter consists of four subdivisions namely, repeated vocative for Palestine, for Jerusalem, for fire mountain and for Gaza city, sixth is the repeated vocative for Palestine's kinsfolk which is divided into repeated vocative for the people, repeated vocative for the Palestinian freedom fighters and repeated vocative for the martyr's folks. Seventh, is the repeated vocative for the Arab nation, eighth is for death and ninth, is the repeated vocative for usurping occupiers. What encouraged me to conduct this study is the significance of its manifestation in the Palestinian poetry in this studied period of time in addition, the fact that I am a Palestinian who loves to write about the topic of the concerns, suffering and aguish of my people. The researcher has concluded that the repetition and vocative styles play a significant and noticeable role in highlighting the image of martyrdom, martyrs, sacrifice and redemption in the Palestinian poetry. These two styles have eventually become a salient feature with psychological dimensions and significances expressing the inner feelings of poets towards martyrs. Repetition in the investigated texts has conveyed an aesthetic and stylistic function in the poem by which the Palestinian poets where able to stress the sought after notion which is the suppression and injustice towards the Palestinian people. Throughout this research, I have found out that poets had varied their styles in using different vocative particles as an expression of the status of the vocative in their hearts and their different feelings and emotions towards them. It was also noticed that the vocative violates its direct meaning and entails other significances and rhetorical purposes to meet the sought after intentions like glorification, eulogy, lamentation and others. One of the most common rhetorical tools exploited in the vocative is glorification especially that of the martyrs. Finally, if this research is for good intentions, then it is thanks to God the Almighty. If it is not, then it is because of me. I pray to God success and approval. Indeed, He is the best Protector and Helper.