الدلالات البلاغية في كتاب معاني القرأن للفراء /دراسة استقصائية تحليلية
صالح محمد موسى صالح
The book of al-Farra’ “Meanings of the Koran” is considered a scientific and linguistic encyclopedia with the full sense of the word, as it includes all the science and knowledge that he has possessed when explaining a verse of the Koran. It also deals with the chapters of the Koran, one after the other, according to their order in the holy book, and discusses all the interesting issues, whether linguistic, morphological or acoustical, besides matters with certain significance that we are discussing in this study. The methods that al-Farra’ used in approaching the chapters he discussed were various, from which he mentioned what he saw as appropriate for his purposes. The study started with an introduction that talked about the descending of Koran from heaven, and its considerable effect on the enrichment of the Arabic language and its eloquence, and the expansion of the significance of its phonations. The study also tackles the great efforts deployed by experts of language and exposition in putting forth many issues related to the Holy Koran, its meanings and metaphors. The study, then, talked about Abi-Zakaria al-Farra’, his refinement and prestigious rank which made al-Ma’moun take his as a tutor for his two sons. He taught them Syntax, and he was known as the Caliph of Syntax. After that, the study examined the metaphoric importance of the book “Meanings of the Koran”. Chapter one dealt with the significance of meanings, then the issue of the predicate in language, and its divisions to mentioning and omitting, as language experts gave this field extensive care, and pointed out its positions, since they used to give the pronunciation and omit it, according to the context and meaning. The study also dealt with the subject of advancement and postponement which is considered one of the sections that illustrate the quality of speech in which a style is favored above another, and the inimitability of Koran becomes obvious. The study also touched on another aspect of the significance of meanings, that is composition, such as the interrogative style, and its meanings in the Holy Koran. AlFarra’ noticed its wide expansion to include metaphoric purposes such as exclamation, scolding, denial, negation, affirming, and notification. From the parts of demanding composition that the study dealt with were: imperative and vocation. It looked at the imperative expressions and their different meanings, he said the imperative comes in the meaning of a predicate, and he was the first to say so. He also pointed out that vocation may expand in its meaning to include different metaphoric and eloquence meanings. The study also touched on the issue of sentence formation, including combination and separation, repetition and attentive style. Although al-Farra’ didn’t clearly state the phrases of combination and separation, yet he recognized their meanings and applied them to certain verses of the Holy Koran. He also understood there was a difference between both styles. As for the attentive style (al-Iltifat), al-Farra’ called it “transition” in various locations in his book, as he stopped at many verses in the Holy Koran, looking for its illustrations, pointing to its locations in speech, in a style that reveals his deep realization of this expression, despite the fact that he didn’t touch its expressional name. As for repetition, al-Farra’ dealt with it in a more detailed significant way than before, since he realized both its linguistic and abstract types. He mentioned many verses from the Koran as artistic evidence approving what was mentioned in it. Chapter two of this study touched on the significance of rhetoric, as divided into description, metaphor and metonymy. Al-Farra’ stopped to illustrate many descriptive images as clearly mentioned in verses of the Koran, analyzing them to their elements, and the common factors in them, then to their significance and objectives, realizing the effect that the description leaves. As for the metaphor, al-Farra’ tackled it as one of the sides of rhetoric pointing to its importance which became the core for research after that. He recognized a group of metaphoric relations and combinations that he uncovered by meaning. He also showed the significance that is considered and corner stone for the start of the art of eloquence. As for metonymy, it was stated in the “Meanings of Koran” in two parts: the linguistic metonymy that was more spread by previous linguists, as it was used to illustrate concealment, and the expressional metonymy which was known for its eloquence meaning that developed after that. Al-Farra’ depended on it in his explanation of many verses of the Koran, as we notice in his book (Eloquence Attentions) in which he touched on concealment and metonymy without announcing it. Chapter three of the study focused on the significance of rhetoric, analogy and guidance, besides the separation in language of the Koran. It seemed that Al-Farra’ has realized the two colorful rhetoric styles; analogy and guidance, and he has touched on them in his treatment of some verses of the Koran, and so he established foundations for knowing these rhetoric origins that have benefited many researchers afterwards. The separation expressions in the Koran are significance in the sense that they are very distinguished because they provided certain patterns of speech in Arabic, and so these expressions were not considered rhymes. It is noticeable that al-Farra’ originated the significance and technical illustrations when he sensed the music in those separation expressions. It seemed to al-Farra’ that the heads of the verses were their endings, and he leaves the separating expression with its influence on the self. Finally, the study concluded with the following results: - Al-Farra’ referred to the text of the Holy Koran, and made it a significant foundation not leaving any other means for judgement, based on analysis, accuracy and evidence to establish those rules on concrete foundations and deeply-rooted origins. - The importance of the abstract significance for al-Farra’, as he began from there to show the shadow meanings of the holy verses of Koran, and the explanations and analysis of their strong meanings, in which he was very watchful for accuracy and relevance to illustrate their originality and stability. - Al-Farra’ put forward the first glances for rhetoric, in an era that has not formed signification and an objective art, therefore he came with his linguistic significance , but what we seemed to have are the first touches through scrutiny and explanation, for important issues that relate to the rhetoric significance , from which many experts later on benefited.
اللغة العربية وآدابها , Arabic Language & literature