واقع معاصر الزيتون في جنوب الضفة الغربية وآلية التخلص من مخلفاتها وايجاد طريقة مجدية لمعالجة المياه العادمة لمعاصر الزيتون (الزيبار)
Occurrence and Fate of Olive Mill Wastewater in the Environment: Feasible Treatment Alternative
تسنيم 'محمد جودي'عبد المحسن الجعبري
tasneem 'M.joudi' abdel mohsen aljabari
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Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is considered as one of the serious environmental pollution problems in Palestine due to their unique composition and toxicity with the abundant of antibacterial and phytotoxic phenolic compounds, furthermore, the seasonal production, the difficulties in disposing and the lack of appropriate treatment of OMW. OMW is one of the most potential threats to the surface and groundwater sources along with other negative impacts on the environment. In this study, a survey was conducted on the olive mills located in the southern part of the West Bank mainly in Hebron and Bethlehem governorates, by covering the number of olive mills and its location, the automation level, the quantity of produced oil, the quantity of produced and the final dumping sites of OMW. The results revealed that the total amount of pressed olives in the study area during the period of study 2010/2011 was 5810 ton, 35% and 65% of the quantity was in Bethlehem and Hebron governorates respectively. The total amount of produced OMW in the study area was 10386 m 3 , 37% and 63% of the quantity was in Bethlehem and Hebron governorates respectively. In addition OMW was disposed without any previous treatment to nearby wadis/ or lands and to sewage network with 67%, and 33% respectively. The physical and chemical properties of OMW were determined in the study area. The 19 samples (16 and 3 samples collected from full and half automatic olive mills in the study area respectively) were collected to determine the level of their pollution and their impact on the environment by measuring parameters like: Total phenols, Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD), pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Oil and Grease (O& G) and Total Solids (TS). The results revealed that the OMW have high risk for environment pollution mainly for, Total phenols, COD, TDS, TSS, O& G that exceed the maximum allowable limits to discharge in the environment or to the sanitary sewer system according to the Jordanian and Palestinian standards. iv This study proposes treatment to reduce the concentration of total phenols in OMW by using lime Ca(OH)2 as a pre-treatment stage followed by biological treatment using Aspergillus niger fungi, to examine their efficiency on reducing total phenol concentration. The treatment experiments divided into two types of experiments, batch system experiment (by using conical flasks) and according to the results of batch system, pilot treatment experiments was applied under lab condition (by using tanks with storage capacity 3 litter). Different doses of lime were tested and the result showed that the most efficient dose in total phenol removal was 10 g/L with efficiency of 56%. In addition, this also reduces the COD and TS concentrations to 17% and 5.7% respectively. The biological treatment depends on Aspergillus niger species was tried on pre-treated OMW with lime. The results indicated that A.niger can reduce the total phenols on pre-treated OMW to 23.5%. After lime and biological treatment, the final concentration of total phenol was 920 mg/L treatment in batch system and 2002 mg/L in pilot system that still exceed the allowable concentration of total phenol to be discharged in the sanitary sewer system or to open wadies. This research is recommending using lime adsorbent as a primary treatment of OMW mainly for OMW with low concentrations of total phenol.