أثر العنف الأسري على الصحة النفسية للمراة في القدس الشرقة
The effect of domestic violence on women's mental health in East Jerusalem
علا علي صالح حسين
Ola Ali Saleh Hussein
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This study studies the effect of domestic violence on women’s mental health in East Jerusalem. The field work procedures for this study has been implemented between December 2008 and March 2009, the study group targeted included battered married women between the ages 19-49 in East Jerusalem, who have visited centers that provide mental health services or social services in Jerusalem city. For research purposes the target groups were divided into five centers: Women's Center for Legal Aid and Counseling Working through its various units to adopt the issues of women and girls who are victims of violence and violation of social and legal; Palestinian Counseling Center which is a guidance and counseling center specializes in the field of community mental health, through the provision of services in individual therapy, group therapy, rehabilitation program for the mentally ill, and the psychiatric service; Popular Center at Beit Hanina which provides various services for all ages at Jerusalem, including special services to guide and support women; Old City Center for Counseling Caritas which deals in particular with drug and alcohol addicts and their families, wives and children, providing psychological services to battered wives of addicts; and finally, Saraya Center for Community is a community center which provides various services, including psychological and social services for battered women0 After selecting the target group for this study, a study sample was determined, the sample size is 124. Intentional sampling was used for selecting the sample. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of domestic violence among the sample and its impact on mental health. In addition, to discover what kinds of family and social support is given to battered women to overcome this problem. Another purpose was to find the associations between demographicfactors (age, educational qualification, place of residence, etc.) to the existence of the phenomenon of domestic violence, and finally to detect the prevalence of psychological symptoms among battered women. The primary tool for the study was questionnaire for collecting the required information. It included four parts; the first part was the raw data for general public study. The second part was the conflict tactics scale, which included 36questions to measure family violence against women, designed by Strauss and others (Straus, et al. 1996). The third part was a measure of personal assessment of the family during a crisis containing 24 questions designed by McCubbin and others (McCubbin, et al. 1982). Finally, to measure the psychological condition using a short list of the psychological state of the scale 90, which included 53 questions, designed by Derogatis (Derogatis, 1993). Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The results of this study showed that 30.3% of the study cases were subjected to domestic violence in general, and that 41.1% of the cases have been subjected to psychological violence, while 34.3%, to physical injuries, and then the fight beyond the physical by 26.7%, and finally, the lowest percentage of physical violence 10.8%. As for the level of psychological symptoms, the highest intensity was recorded as 37.2% of hostility, and obsessive-compulsive disorder 35.1%, 32.7% depression, followed by anxiety 31.3% and 30.4% psychotic, interactive sensitivity 28.3%, followed by phobia 28%, while virtual paranoia was 27%, and finally, physical symptoms, 24.0%. The study also founded a positive relationship of a statistical significance between “domestic violence” and (physical symptoms, interactive sensitivity, depression). In addition, to a negative relationship of statistical significance between “negotiations” and (Phobia and paranoia virtual). It also found a positive relationship of a statistical significance between “physical fight " and (physical symptoms, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, interactive sensitivity, depression, paranoia virtual, psychotic, as well as overall psychological symptoms). It also noted substantial differences with statistical significance between the different age groups and "severe physical violence" in the interest of subjected younger women in age (19 to 25). In addition to substantial differences between educational level and the degree of exposure to domestic violence for the benefit of the uneducated subjected women. Also, substantial differences between the place of residence and the negotiations for the subjected women for the benefit of women who lived in the city. Finally, statistically significant differences between the place of residence and severe physical violence in favor of subjects who lived in the camp. The most important recommendations for this study were to focus on awareness-raising programs on domestic violence and women's rights and to work on the empowerment of women and their role in the family and society, the enactment and implementation of laws on domestic violence.